• Server & Related Components
•Ubuntu Server Operating System (USOS)
• Server Hardware
• Server Software
• Network Medium
• Installation of USOS
• Managing Servers
Ubuntu is one of the fastest in growing Linux distributions
accessible. Ubuntu combines all the sensible features –
usability, security, and support—into one distribution.
This Presentation mainly deals with installing and
management of Ubuntu Server Operating System in a
What is Linux?
Linux is a free Unix-type operating system kernel, it was
developed by Linus Torvalds and other programmer’s in
1991 at that time Linus was a student at the University of
Helsinki. It was released as an open-source product.
Later Linux appeared as distributions after merging different types of
desktops, OS components, desktop publishing software’s
and many others.
• Non Proprietary
• Easy Maintenance
• Automated Patching
• Support Multiple Hardware
• Support Option
• Minimal Investment
Under the structure of the client-server
architecture, a business’s computer
network will have a server computer,
which functions as the “brain” of the
organization, and a group of client
computers, which are commonly called
workstations. The server part of the
client-server architecture will be a
Server Related Components
– Server Operating system
– Server Hardware
– Server Software
– Network Medium
Server Operating System
“Operating System acts as an interface between the user of
a computer and computer hardware.”
Ubuntu’s Server Operating System is a linux operating
system without gui (by default). Ubuntu is developed and
distributed by Canonical Ltdas a free and open source
Ubuntu SOS can be installed in a very low end hardware for
personal use to a very high end hardware for enterprise
environments. Minimal Requirements are,
– 500 MHz CPU
– 256 MB RAM
– 4 GB Hard Drive.
– Optical Drive.
Server Hardware Contd.
But for an enterprise environment with different server roles,
SAN, RAID, Cloud etc., the configuration needed is,
– 2 quad core CPU
– 8 GB of RAM
– Five 500 GB Hard Disks
– Two Gigabit Internet Cards
– Optical Drive.
Depending upon the requirements, various server software
along with Server Operating System is installed to meet
the client needs. Some of them are,
? Web Server
? Database Server
? Email Server
? LDAP Server
? FTP Server
? File Server
? DHCP Server
? DNS Server
Web Server Software
The term ‘web server’ can mean two things – a
computer/machinethat hosts web sites (hardware) and a
software that runs on such a machine and processes
requests from browsers (also called client software).
A web server is software capable of servicing HTTP
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol) requests. The web server
That software used with Linux is called”Apache HTTP Server”. It
carries around 60% of web server market around the world.
Database Server Software
Database Server is an application which stores information
and provide it to other applications or computers in a time
critical and reliable manner. DB servers so called as back
end servers. Some of the DB servers used in Linux
environment is PostgresSQL, MySQL, Oracle etc.
Email Server Software
A mail server which is also called MTA short for (mail transfer agent) or a
mail transport agent, a mail router, and it is
an application that receives arriving e-mail from local
users (people within the same sector) and distant
senders and forwards outgoing e-mail for delivery. Major
mail server software is the following,
LDAP Server Software
The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an
application protocol for reading and editing directories over
an IP network. LDAP Server Stores the information related
to computers, users, shares etc. in it and facilitate to query
this information for System Administrators.
For example, login information can be taken from LDAP
FTP Server Software
An FTP server is an application running the File Transfer
Protocol (FTP), which is the protocol for exchanging files
over the Internet.
Some of the FTP Server software in Linux are,
File Server Software
A file server is different from a personal computer (PC) in that the
server is devoted to storing files in a centralized location
while permitting small access to networked computers.
File Servers in Linux are,
• NFS File Server
• Samba Server
DHCP Server Software
A DHCP server is the server that is in charge of assigning
unique IP address to the computers on a network. Two
computers cannot have the same IP address on a network at
the same time otherwise there will be conflicts. DHCP servers will
take a request from a computer that has just been connected
(or added) to the network and assign it a unique IP
address (i.e. 192.168.55.23) which is available. “dhcpd” is
the software used in Linux as a dhcp server.
DNS Server Software
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a degree technology
for managing Website names and other Internet
domains. This DNS server is responsible for turning domain
names to IP addresses and locating them on hosting servers. The DNS server used in linux is
considered as “bind’
The Server and Client machines are communicated inside a
network using a medium. It can be wired or wireless.
Wired Network mediums : Ethernet, Optic Fibre etc.
Wireless Network medium : Microwave, GPRS, 3G etc.
Wired Network Medium
Optic Fibre Ethernet
Wireless Network Medium
Wifi Network GPRS Network
Network Client Computers nodes through which information
is entered or extracted from the server using a web
browser or a specific application. High end client PCs are
also called as Work Stations,
Installation of Ubuntu SOS
Steps involved in installation are,
• Boot from install CD, select language and click install ubuntu
• Select location, country and keyboard layout
• Enter machine name and clock settings
• Partition the Hard disk
• Enter root account and password
• Select the server software required and install.
Installation of Ubuntu SOS
Screen Shots of Installation
• Network Management Tools
• Operating System and Software Managing Tools
Network Management Tools
• Basic Tools
• Advanced Tools
– Wireshark and many more
Ping is a computer network management value used to test the
reachability of a host on an Internet Protocol (IP) network and to
measure the time of round-trip for messages that are sent from the beginning
host to a destination computer.
ifconfig which is short for interface configuration is a system administration benefit
to arrange, control, and query TCP/IP network interface parameters from
a command line interface (CLI)
– Ifconfig a : displays information of all interfaces.
– Ifconfig eth0 down : disables interface eth0.
– Ifconfig eth0 192.168.0.1 : change the ip address.
The tracerouteutility displays the route used by IP packets on their
way to a specified network (or Internet) host. Traceroute displays
the IP number and host name (if possible) of the machines along the
route taken by the packets. Traceroute is used as a network
Ufw (Uncomplicated firewall)
The standard firewall configuration device for Ubuntu is called ufw. It was developed to facilitate
iptables firewall configuration, ufw is responsible for making a user friendly way to create
an IPv4 or IPv6 host-based firewall. Also desktop Ubuntu has a desktop
version of ufw. ie. gufw
– sudo ufw deny
specific port with specific protocl
– sudo ufw allow
services like ftp, http, ssh etc.