• Server & Related Components
•Ubuntu Server Operating System (USOS)
• Server Hardware
• Server Software
• Network Medium
• Installation of USOS
• Managing Servers

INTRODUCTION
Ubuntu is one of the fastest in growing Linux distributions 
accessible. Ubuntu combines all the sensible features – 
usability, security, and support—into one distribution.
This Presentation mainly deals with installing and 
management of Ubuntu Server Operating System in a 
networked environment.

What is Linux?
Linux is a free Unix-type operating system kernel, it was 
developed by Linus Torvalds and other programmer’s in 
1991 at that time Linus was a student at the University of 
Helsinki. It was released as an open-source product.
Later Linux appeared as distributions after merging different types of 
desktops, OS components, desktop publishing software’s 
and many others.

Why Linux?
• Non Proprietary
• Easy Maintenance
• Automated Patching
• Support Multiple Hardware
• Support Option
• Minimal Investment
• Reliable
• Community-Centric

Server
Under  the  structure  of  the  client-server 
architecture,  a  business’s  computer 
network  will  have  a  server  computer, 
which  functions  as  the  “brain”  of  the 
organization,  and  a  group  of  client 
computers, which are commonly called 
workstations.  The  server  part  of  the 
client-server  architecture  will  be  a 
large-capacity computer

Server Related Components
– Server Operating system 
– Server Hardware
– Server Software
– Network Medium
– Clients

Server Operating System
“Operating System acts as an interface between the user of 
a computer and computer hardware.”
Ubuntu’s Server Operating System is a linux operating 
system without gui (by default). Ubuntu is developed and 
distributed by Canonical Ltdas a free and open source 
Operating System.

Server Hardware
Ubuntu SOS can be installed in a very low end hardware for 
personal use to a very high end hardware for enterprise 
environments. Minimal Requirements are,
– 500 MHz CPU
– 256 MB RAM
– 4 GB Hard Drive.
– Optical Drive.

Server Hardware Contd.
But for an enterprise environment with different server roles, 
SAN, RAID, Cloud etc., the configuration needed is, 
– 2 quad core CPU
– 8 GB of RAM
– Five 500 GB Hard Disks
– Two Gigabit Internet Cards
– Optical Drive.

Server Software
Depending upon the requirements, various server software 
along with Server Operating System is installed to meet 
the client needs. Some of them are,
? Web Server
? Database Server
? Email Server
? LDAP Server 
? FTP Server
? File Server
? DHCP Server
? DNS Server

Web Server Software
The term  ‘web  server’  can  mean  two  things  –  a 
computer/machinethat hosts web sites (hardware) and a 
software that runs on such a machine and processes 
requests from browsers (also called client software).
A web server is software capable of servicing HTTP 
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol) requests.  The web server 
That software used with Linux  is  called”Apache  HTTP  Server”.  It 
carries around 60% of web server market around the world.

Database Server Software
Database  Server  is  an  application  which  stores  information 
and provide it to other applications or computers in a time 
critical and reliable manner. DB servers so called as back 
end servers.  Some of the DB servers used in Linux 
environment is PostgresSQL, MySQL, Oracle etc.

Email Server Software
A mail server which is also called MTA short for (mail transfer agent) or a 
mail transport agent, a mail router, and it is 
an application that receives arriving e-mail from local 
users (people within the same sector) and distant 
senders and forwards outgoing e-mail for delivery.  Major 
mail server software is the following,
• Postfix
• Sendmail
• qmail

LDAP Server Software
The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an 
application protocol for reading and editing directories over 
an IP network. LDAP Server Stores the information related 
to computers, users, shares etc. in it and facilitate to query 
this information for System Administrators.
For example, login information can be taken from LDAP 
Server.

FTP Server Software
An FTP server is an application running the File Transfer 
Protocol (FTP), which is the protocol for exchanging files 
over the Internet.
Some of the FTP Server software in Linux are,
• Proftpd
• Filezilla

File Server Software
A file server is different from a personal computer (PC) in that the 
server is devoted to storing files in a centralized location 
while permitting small access to networked computers.
File Servers in Linux are,
• NFS File Server
• Samba Server

DHCP Server Software
A DHCP server is the server that is in charge of assigning 
unique IP address to the computers on a network. Two 
computers cannot have the same IP address on a network at 
the same time otherwise there will be conflicts. DHCP servers will 
take a request from a computer that has just been connected 
(or added) to the network and assign it a unique IP 
address (i.e.  192.168.55.23) which is available.  “dhcpd” is 
the software used in Linux as a dhcp server.

DNS Server Software
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a degree technology 
for  managing  Website names  and  other  Internet 
domains.  This DNS server  is  responsible  for  turning  domain 
names to  IP  addresses  and  locating  them  on hosting servers. The DNS server used in linux is 
considered as “bind’

Network Medium
The Server and Client machines are communicated inside a 
network using a medium. It can be wired or wireless.
Wired Network mediums : Ethernet, Optic Fibre etc.
Wireless Network medium : Microwave, GPRS, 3G etc.

Wired Network Medium
Optic Fibre Ethernet

Wireless Network Medium
Wifi Network GPRS Network

Network Clients
Network Client Computers nodes through which information 
is entered or extracted from the server using a web 
browser or a specific application. High end client PCs are 
also called as Work Stations,

Installation of Ubuntu SOS
Steps involved in installation are,
• Boot from install CD, select language and click install ubuntu 
server
• Select location, country and keyboard layout
• Enter machine name and clock settings
• Partition the Hard disk
• Enter root account and password
• Select the server software required and install.

Installation of Ubuntu SOS
Screen Shots of Installation

Server Management
• Network Management Tools
• Operating System and Software Managing Tools

Network Management Tools
• Basic Tools
– Ping
– Ifconfig
– Traceroute
– ufw
• Advanced Tools
– NTop
– Wireshark and many more

Ping
Ping is a computer  network  management  value used  to  test  the 
reachability  of  a  host  on  an  Internet  Protocol  (IP)  network  and  to 
measure the time of round-trip for messages that are sent from the beginning 
host to a destination computer.
• Syntax
– Ping
– Ping

ifconfig
ifconfig which is short for interface configuration is a system administration benefit 
to arrange, control, and query TCP/IP network interface parameters from 
a command line interface (CLI)
• Syntax
– Ifconfig ­a : displays information of all interfaces.
– Ifconfig eth0 down : disables interface eth0.
– Ifconfig eth0 192.168.0.1 : change the ip address.

Traceroute
The tracerouteutility displays the route used by IP packets on their 
way  to  a  specified  network  (or  Internet)  host.  Traceroute  displays 
the IP number and host name (if possible) of the machines along the 
route  taken  by  the  packets.  Traceroute  is  used  as  a  network 
debugging tool
• Syntax
– traceroute
– traceroute
Ufw (Uncomplicated firewall)
The standard firewall configuration device for Ubuntu is called ufw. It was developed to facilitate 
iptables firewall configuration, ufw is responsible for making a user friendly way to create 
an IPv4 or IPv6 host-based firewall. Also desktop Ubuntu has a desktop 
version of ufw. ie. gufw
Syntax
– sudo ufw deny / : block a 
specific port with specific protocl
– sudo ufw allow : Allow specific 
services like ftp, http, ssh etc.