The Battle of Ia Drang was the
first major battle between the United
States Army and the North Vietnamese Army-NVA (People’s Army of
Vietnam-PAVN).  It comprised two main engagements. The first involved the
1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment and supporting units, and took
place November 14–16, 1965 at LZ X-Ray, located at the eastern foot of the Chu
Pong massif in the central highlands of Vietnam.


The second engagement involved the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment
plus supporting units, and took place on November 17 at LZ Albany, farther
north in the Ia Drang Valley. It is notable for being the first large
scale helicopter air assault and also the first use of B-52
strategic bombers in a tactical support role.

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The aim of
this paper is to study the leadership traits of Harold G.Moore and to exploit
his positive and negative leadership traits as a lesson to be learnt and use
their ideas in recent modern-day air warfare and conflict.




The scope of
this paper will cover the following



Principle of his Leadership Style.



Learnt in Relation to the Principles Chosen.






















Lt Gen Harold G.Moore was born on 13 February
1922 at Bardstown, Kentucky. Hecommissioned as a second lieutenant at West
Point in 1945. He involved in Korean War 1954 and Vietnam War 1965.He is best
known for his leadership in the first major battle between the US and the
People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN). Moore and his late wife, Julia Compton Moore,
have 5 children. Moore selected Infantry as his branch and joined the 187th
Airborne Regiment in Sendai, Japan. In June 1952, Captain Moore
deployed to Korea. Over the course of the next 14 months, he would command a
rifle company and heavy mortar company in the 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th
Infantry Division, and seeing action in some of Korea’s fiercest battles of
attrition on Pork Chop Hill, T-Bone, Alligator Jaws and Charlie Outpost. 
After two years at West Point, he attended the Naval Postgraduate School and
later worked in the Pentagon in the Air Mobility Division, part of the Chief of
Research and Development, in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations
and Plans. Kinnard would be LTC Moore’s Division Commander in Vietnam five
years later and would shape Moore’s command style.  In June 1964, LTC
Moore received a by-name request from the newly promoted Brigadier General
Harry W. O. Kinnard, commanding general, 11th Air Assault Division (Test), to
serve as a battalion commander. Following
retirement from active duty in 1977, he worked as the Executive Vice President
of the Crested Butte Mountain Resort in Colorado. In 1981, working with his
co-author, Joe Galloway, he turned his attention to the research that
underpinned their 1992 New York Times Bestselling book on the Ia Drang battles,
We Were Soldiers Once… and Young. In 2002, the book was the basis of the
acclaimed movie, We Were Soldiers, where Mel Gibson portrayed Hal. After being
devastated by the loss of his wife, Julie, in 2004, Hal withdrew from public
life but worked with Joe Galloway to produce the 2008 sequel to the first book;
We are Soldiers Still: A Journey Back to the Battlefields of VietnamHe
passed away at his home in Auburn, AL on February 10, 2017.





Leadership principles
are guidelines that have tested and proven over the years by successful leader.
In our research, we found that Harold G.Moore have principle on Brad Sugars 10
principles of leadership.

1.    Know yourself and seek self improvement

2.    Be technically proficient

3.    Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your

4.    Make sound and timely decision

5.    Set the example

6.    Know your people and look out for their well being

7.    Keep your people informed

8.    Develop a sense of accountability, ownership and
responsibility in your people

9.    Ensure tasks are understood, supervised and accomplished

10. Train your people as a team


To determine the
quality of Harold G.Moore leadership, the principle that guided into his
actions must be analyzed in order to be guide for other leaders in performing
their duties. Harold G.Moore was military general who required of leadership
skill at high levels. When each of these areas has been assessed individually,
it will then be possible to draw conclusions about the quality of Harold
G.Moore leadership and how it either assisted or hindered the accomplishment of
his mission. It will also be possible to determine if his exercise of
leadership has any applicability to the problem faced by leaders today and in
the future. Harold G.Moore has adopted various principles in his leadership as
a leader but we will examine two principles that most outstanding in him. The
chosen principle is as discussed below.





Seeking responsibility and
take responsibility for the actions are very important leadership traits for a
leader to possess. A true leader
seeks responsibility and takes pride in his actions and backs them up. Related
with Harold G.Moore, we can see some of his responsibility on his communication
within his troops, example of “I can’t promise you that I will bring you all home alive. But this I
swear, before you and before Almighty God, that when we go into battle, I will
be the first to set foot on the field, and I will be the last to set off, and I
will leave no one behind. Dead or alive, we will all come home together. So
help me God.” (Hal Moore). 



The most important
principle for next-generation leader is to lead by example. Leaders are not
there to tell people what to do, but to show them how and why to perform the
specific task. The core idea of leadership is the ability to inspire people and
in order to do that you can’t just bark orders. If you want people to buy into
your vision, then you need to show them why the vision is worth working for
with your action and behavior. What we can relate with Harold G.Moore about
this principle is his contribution during his service at 82nd
Airborne Division. He joined Airborne test Section, a special unit testing
experimental parachutes. During training, he volunteers
himself to become a jump tested experimental parachute and other airborne gear.
With that event, he become an example to others.



Team is somehow the most
important resource for each leader. Embraced your team and devote your energy
to care about its unity each and every day. As long as your team splendid
nothing can stay on your way to success. Make sure that all people in your team
consider themselves as members of a strong unified family. For the Harold
G.Moore, he treat his subordinate like a family even during training or war
especially with his Sgt Major Basil L Plumley. His friendly behaviors have made
their people as team without care about his level of rank.


As conclusion, from the 3 of Brad Sugars principle that we
had choose,  by using Be, Know Do model
(BKD) of leadership, Harold G.Moore was fulfill the requirement to become an
excellent leader.  The character and
competence the BE and the KNOW underlie everything a leader done.



Harold G.Moore demonstrates his character through his
behavior. One of his responsibility as a leader is to teach values to his men. Harold
G.Moore always talk about honor, loyalty and selfless service to motivate their
men before go to battlefield. He also teaches their men of the value thru the
action and example such as:


a.    “From that visit I took away one lesson: Death is the price you pay for
underestimating this tenacious enemy.” ? Harold G. Moore, We Were Soldiers Once . . . and Young: Ia Drang-The
Battle That Changed the War in Vietnam


b.    “War is
absolutely the last card any national leader should play, and only when every
other alternative has been exhausted. If the hand was being played by an old
soldier, a war veteran, I can assure you he would guard that war card to the
bitter end and play it reluctantly and with the fear and trepidation of
? Harold G. Moore, We Are Soldiers Still: A Journey Back to the
Battlefields of Vietnam



A leader must have a certain level of
knowledge to be competent. That knowledge is spread across four skill domains
that is interpersonal skill, conceptual skill, technical skill and tactical
skill. Related to Harold G.Moore, he have all the skill by example for the
interpersonal skill he always be with the man along the daily work and also
training part. He very closely to the subordinates to give a way for them to
feel free with him and he try to understand the way of subordinates. The 2nd
is conceptual skill to understand and apply the doctrine to the subordinates.
Before Vietnam war, he studied about the enemy and situation first then briefly
to the man. The 3rd is technical skill is how to use the asset or
equipment. He also studied about capacity of the helicopter that use for the
war. The last thing is about tactical skill that shown how he facing trouble
situation that is  in a tough time and critical situation he think a kind of
go into a sort of a (unintelligible) zone (ph) and blank out all the horrible
brutality which is going on around him, being aware of it nevertheless but
realizing that was a commander he responsible for preserving as many American
lives as he can and killing as many enemy as he can.

Now, in
the smoke and the dust, which limits visibility and the terrible heat – that
compounds the situation. The men screaming and yelling, giving orders in three
languages – English, Spanish, Vietnamese; wounded men screaming for medics and
for their mother, about to die he never found it difficult to keep. Once, he was
eight seconds from hitting the ground, but he knew he make it in on my reserve
if he could get it open. He never really been concerned when he been tough







When analyzing the character traits of a
leader it is important to assess both positive and negative traits to ensure
that lessons can be learned from both examples. This analysis can be used to
educate the grow subordinates into future leader. Harold G.Moore showed
numerous exemplary leadership traits, most of them are positive traits fit for
a leader and even the negative traits discuss later have a positive side to
them. Some of positive traits that Harold G.Moore possessed were as follows:


a.    Courage – Lt. Gen. Harold G.Moore whose fortitude saved most of his
outnumbered battalion in 1965 in the first major battle between American and
North Vietnamese troop. He was phenomenal man of great strength and character,
courageous and like a father to his troops who got most of his boys. On the
first day of battle at LZ X-Ray, the helicopter only can drop 80 of Moore’s 429
men at a time, once every 35 minutes. The PAVN had 2000 veteran soldiers on
ground and 6000 more were just half-day’s march away. However, as a courageous
leader, he able to manage their troops into the battle. Furthermore, his
attitude that make him to be the first person also shows of his courage value. He volunteers himself to become a jump tested experimental
parachute and other airborne gear. On his first jump, however, the parachute
hung on the tail of C-46 aircraft. He was dragged, twisting and trailing behind
the plane, at 110 miles per hour, 1500 feet above drop zone.

INSPIRATION:  He delivered on a
vow that endeared him to his troops: “I’ll always be the first person on the
battlefield, my boots will be the first boots on it, and I’ll be the last
person off. I’ll never leave a body.”

He defined
the most important leadership quality of all is stated over and over again in
the military: setting the example. Sometimes the example was physical like
being the first in on a unit run and other times the example was making sure
that the lower enlisted Soldiers at first.


4.         RESPONSIBILITY:  He will not leave
their men. Three months earlier at Fort Benning, Ga., he had promised his men
that none would be left behind on a jungle battlefield. Later, helicopters were
so full of dead and wounded men that blood drained out of the cracks in the

            Julie Moore change policy to notify the family. Requiring
then an officer and chaplain personal to delivery news.


MOTIVATED LEADER:   The day before battalion was departing for
Vietnam, He held a dress formation on the parade ground with families of his
troops attending. He addressed the group with a speech.




13.       A true military leader, to put into
writing his negative traits really pushed this research deep to find any if
there are. The only traits that would make Harold G. Moore less than perfect
was only the based on our research. The 3 negative traits that Harold G. Moore
is as followed:

Unreliable –
Harold G. Moore gave bad impression of his president to their man. He thinks
that his president is well spoken without known of the reality. “Troops in
battle don’t fight for what some president says on TV,”. Moore said. “They
don’t fight for mom, the flag or the apple pie, they fight for one another,
they fight to stay alive and they become brother for life.”

A Risk to Complete A Task – 
Harold G Moore always take a risk to become first. For example, when he
with the 82nd Airborne Division he joined the Airborne Test Section
a special unit testing experimental parachutes. His main chute hung up with at
the tail of C-34 aircraft with speed 110 nm/h at 1500 feet above ground level,
however he able to cut off his main parachute and safely landed at landing zone
using a backup chute.

–  Harold G. Moore are overconfident with
himself that he has a good knowledge in academic, professional army officer
trained in all the army school and been through battle in Korea War as infantry
company commander of two infantry companies. He never did any bargaining with