1.     Green marketing is one of the strategies
used by companies in order to gain profit and protect the environment. The
American Marketing Association (AMA) defines green marketing as marketing of
products that are believed to be environment-friendly, which organizes into
various activities such as product adjustments, modification of production
processes, packaging, labelling, advertising strategies as well as increases awareness
on compliance marketing amongst industries (Yazdamifard, 2011). As green
marketing is becoming a major focus in business enterprises, consumers level of
consciousness towards their environmental approaches, desires and purchases is
increasing. According to the World Commission on Environmental Development
(1978), Sustainable Development defines “meeting the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs”.

Green marketing tools such as Eco-label, Eco-brand and Environmental
advertisement make perception easier and increase awareness of eco-friendly
product features and aspects. The business world has an importance towards the
environment and society and the first concern of business society should be
placed on the key of conserving the environment instead of improving the
profitability of the business. A green consumer is typically known as one who
supports eco-friendly attitude and/or purchases green products over the
standard alternatives (Boztepe, 2012). Consumers are showing environmental
concerns depending on product features, precision if green product claims and
information provided on the packaged goods. Benefits of Green Marketing include
increase in revenue, reduction in cost, building brand value, getting tax breaks
along with loans from government and at last world salvation. To conclude,
consumers want to recognize themselves with companies that are green complaint
and are willing to pay more for a greener lifestyle. For this reason, green
marketing is not only an environmental protection tool but also a marketing




2.     In India, green marketing is still in the
infancy stage and lacks behind in the field on consumer study. Polonsky, “Green
marketing consists of all activities designed to generate and facilitate any
exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants, such that satisfaction of
those needs and want occurs, with minimal detrimental impact on the natural
environment. FMCG (fast moving consumer goods) are the products that are sold
quickly at relatively low cost. Though the absolute profit made on FMCG
products is relatively small, they generally sell in large quantities, so the
cumulative profit on such products can be large. (Peattie (2011), described
evolution of Green marketing in 3 phases. The first phase is termed as
“Ecological” green marketing and during this period all marketing activities
are concerned to help the environmental problems and provide remedies for environmental
problems. Second phase “Environmental” green marketing and the focus shifted on
clean technology that involved designing of innovation new products, which take
care of pollution and waste issues. Third phase was “sustainable” green
marketing came into prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000. “Product that
incorporate strategies in recycling or recycled content, reduced packaging or
using less toxic materials to reduce the impact on the natural environment is
known as Green products or eco-friendly products (Elkington,1999). Product
label and outdoor advertisement are major sources of awareness towards
eco-friendly products. Consumers are having a positive attitude towards
eco-friendly products. Lack of knowledge and not being aware of the benefits
are the barriers for purchasing eco-friendly products. The FMCG sector is one
of the growing industries that concern about green marketing issues (
Ramanakumar, 2012). The consumers are waking up to the virtues of green
products. But it is still a new concept for the majority. The new green
movements need to reach the masses and that will take a lot of time and effort.

The government, the organization, the masses and the consumers have to join
their hands together in bringing the ecological balance.


has now been a global concern to protect environment from pollution caused by
humans. With this vital information, companies have understood the importance
and value of green marketing in business also. The term – Green marketing was
first discussed in a seminar on “ecological marketing” organized by American
Marketing Association (AMA) in 1975 and took its pace in the literature. Research
in the last decade has indicated that consumers are aware and are willing to
pay more to “go green”. Companies are using various means to persuade the
consumer’s segments who are environmentally conscious to change their attitudes
from the conventional products towards green products and also satisfy their
needs. Researchers have emphasized on four concepts on the “demographics, green
lifestyle, green attitudes and green behavioral intentions in the context of
low involvement product category”. Even though the shift to ‘green’ will be
expensive to both the consumers as well as businesses, it will most definitely
pay off in the long run. Factors such as the four elements of the marketing
mix, satisfaction and word of mouth (WOM) have an influence on the attitude and
purchasing intentions of consumers on eco-friendly products specifically fast
moving consumer goods (FMCG) or non-durable ones.  Marketing mix (product, price, place,
promotion) has become very vital in the production of eco-friendly products due
to the environmental concern of consumers. Amongst all the factors satisfaction
showed a great influence that indicated that marketing managers should concern
with the superior value of the eco-friendly products. Consumers have strong
emphasis on the end value of the products in order to repeat purchases. The
product attributes in general, have little influence on the attitudes and
purchase intention of green products. However, the product quality is not
supposed to be overlooked since consumers relate price with quality (Kotler and
Keller, 2009, p.421) when making purchasing decision, and consumers research
not only the green products claiming environmental values but also products
with high quality (Chang and Fong, 2010, p.2841), because consumers are not
ready to make a compromise on quality just for the benefits green attributes