The notion of ideology, originally due to Marxists
background of unequal class relations were being considered in theories of
ideology (Abdel-Moetey,
2015). However, at present society,
unequal relations of power, gender and ethnicity are also being reflected in
terms of ideology. Ideology can be defined as a systematic body of idea (Kress
&Hodge, 1993:6 cited in Mooney & Evans, 2015). Thus, ideology can be
simply described as a set of beliefs and behavior that are thought of as
natural. Fairclough (1997: 276) argues that ideology does not only construct a
certain social reality, but also a specific identity. Moreover, ideologies are
particular ways of representing and constructing society, which reproduce
unequal relations of power, relations of domination and exploitation (Fairclough,
1997: 275). Moreover, Van Dijk (1995a) states that the notion of
ideologies are usually expressed and reproduced in discourse, verbal and
non-verbal communication and other forms of interaction. Additionally, when speakers and
writers are able to influence the mental models, knowledge, attitudes and
eventually the ideologies of recipients, they may indirectly control their
future action.