2.1 Internet Gaming AddictionIn 2017, more than 1billion people play computer games. Most of them enjoy and play game as a formof entertainment and to release stress. Nevertheless, according to Subramaniam,Chua, Abdin, Pang, Satghare, Vaingankar and Chong (2016) they stated that itleads to problematic use and research has proven gaming may becomepsychologically, socially and physically harmful to the user under certainconditions.
Playing games too muchleads to addiction. Addiction is a serious problem and significant enough tomake people to undergo dramatic changes in their physical and mental health. Sodoes to internet gaming addiction.One of the cases ofinternet addiction was reported last year in Cyberjaya when a 14-year-old boyloved and addicted to game so much and because of that he did not leave hishome for half a year until hisparents hauled him to therapy for Internet addiction (The Star, 2016). According to Griffiths (2002)biopsychosocial processes lead to the development of addictions, for instance internetgaming addiction, which include the following components he salience of thebehaviour (preoccupation with gaming); use of the behaviour in order to modifymood (gaming is used to escape reality or create the feeling of euphoria);development of tolerance (the individual needs increasingly more time to feelthe same effect); withdrawal symptoms subsequent to the discontinuation of thebehaviour (the individual feels anxious, depressed, and irritable if they areprevented from playing) as well as interpersonal and intrapersonal conflictdevelops as a consequence of the behaviour (the individual has problems withrelationships, studies, job, and hobbies). 2.2 Playing Video Games CreatesTeamwork among The PlayersA great teamwork isreally important in the game. According to Reuter, Wendel, Göbel &Steinmetz (2014) all players actively take part in the interaction during theirplay time.
A collaborative games offers the potential to train their players’ability to work in teams. The players can have fun of being together with theirfriends and help each other to overcome the obstacles during the game. Thus, itdevelops their social skills. Pobiedina, Neidhardt,Moreno & Werthner (2013) also agreed that the most important indicator forthe success of the team is the number of friends playing together in the team.So, teamwork plays a role in playing video game. The existence of cooperationin the team, really contribute and influence the performance of the team in apositive way. 2.
3 Playing Video Games IncreasesMotivation and Learning Process In terms of motivation,competitive elements can be incorporated by playing video games because of the interactivity,which allows for active engagement of the players in the playing process andfor immediate feedback on user’s actions (Vorderer, Hartmann & Klimmt,2003). The competitiveness developsamong the players to actively engage in the game. Therefore, it appearssensible to regard enjoyment as one of the factors to motivate the players tolearn the game. Videogameshas led to the rise of “edu-tainment” media. It helps the users for the learningpurpose.
Griffiths (2002) said that some evidence suggests that importantskills may be built or reinforced by videogames for instance spatialvisualization ability including mentally, rotating and manipulating two- andthree-dimensional objects can be improved with video game playing. He added videogamescan be used as a research or measurement tools, it is useful because they allowthe researcher to measure performance on a very wide variety of tasks, and canbe easily changed and standardized, helps to increase IT skills as well asenhance the language skills since most of the video games use English as themain language, for instance increase grammar and vocabulary. 2.
4 PlayingVideo Games Develops Critical Thinking SkillAs indicated by MohammadSeifi, Derikvandi, Moosavipour and Khodabandelou (2015) some of the games havebeen effective in increasing the level of the players’ critical thinking skill.This is due to that when the players are facing difficulties or in ambiguoussituation, they need to improve their cognitive skills and it will make them tothink and be creative. So, the solution can be found.
Thus, it can improve theeducational achievement. The critical thinking is defined as one ofintellectual and reflective thinking that is focusing on doing something orbelieve ((Ennis, 1985; cited from Mohammad Seifi, Derikvandi, Moosavipour , 2015). However, in their studythere was a lack of influence of the games on the players’ critical thinkingskill where they came from different cultures and different training factors alsoaffected them. In addition, effective factors such as cultural factors,economic and social institution towards the critical thinking are not similarin the different societies had been confirmed. 2.
5Playing Video Games Builds Competitiveness One of the factorsleads the players to play online video game excessively is the strongmotivation to compete and win for video game play among the players. In Olson’sstudy (2010), more than four of five boys surveyed indicated that they weremotivated by competition which represented 57% strongly agreed. Competition andpride as well as the sense of accomplishment by winning the game were keymotivators to play, so, it could increase the self-esteem especially when theydid not perform well in academics or sports (Funk, Chan, Brouwer, , 2006). In the study of Boardof Film Classification (BBFC; Cragg, Taylor, & Toombs, 2007, cited fromOlson, 2010) the boys talked about competing and bragging the rights of winningwhen they played the video games. It has proven that males were verycompetitive rather than females to play video games in teams. For them, theywill get the social rewards because of gaming, such as talking about how youare doing, playing together, helping and beating each other. It attracted themales more compared to the females.
Nevertheless, females also enjoyedcompetition but the percentage was less. In addition, for theboys, video games can be a jockey for social status like the healthydevelopmental role of “rough and tumble” play (Pellegrini, 2003;cited from Olson, 2010). It means that the boys can gain the rank or status ifthey are pro or master the famous video game such as Dota 2 game. So, thefeeling of motivation to compete and win in every battle is needed. 2.
6 Playing Video Games IncreasesEnglish SkillsOther than that, theplayers can improve and master their English skills by playing the game. The languagethat is used in Dota 2 is English, in order to make it easier to communicate ina team just in case the players are from different countries and speakdifferent languages. This helps many players to get used to the game faster andmore comfortably (An, 2017). In the study of 3D Role-Playing Games as LanguageLearning Tools, Rankin, Gold, & Gooch (2006) found that results demonstratethat Ever Quest 2 intermediate and advanced ESL students had increased theirEnglish vocabulary by 40% as the result of game play interactions. The gamers are able to increasetheir vocabulary and grammar, reading as well as their speaking skills. AshrafHamid, Motlagh and Salami (2014) in their study revealed that online games canbe effective in vocabulary acquisition. This is due to an interactive andmotivating context is created, so the players can easily and subconsciously sharetheir information.
It helps the players to increase English skills since theyindirectly undergo the process of vocabulary learning. 2.7Video Games As A Stress RelieverStress is a part ofpeople’s lives, finding a way to relieve stress would be helpful to the people.
According to Mercer (2015) by finding a simple way to remove that ailment whichis stress would be beneficial to a great number of people. This is because whenstress goes on for too long, it can damage the mind and body. National Instituteof Mental Health indicated that stress can bring negative effect to a person’simmune, digestive, excretory and reproductive systems. Meanwhile for theprolonged stress, it may lead to serious health problems such as heart disease,high blood pressure, diabetes, depression, anxiety disorder, and otherillnesses. Online gaming acts as thealleviation of negative feelings and mood states. The gamers used online gamingto relieve their boredom and loneliness as well to reduce frustration.
Onlinegaming had the capability as a therapy to play games to relieve the negativefeelings (Hussain & Griffiths, 2009). Thus, it will bring the positivevibes to the gamers. 2.8Excessive Playing Video Games and ProblemsExcessive game playingcan cause negative impact towards the players. The virtual world was perceivedas a place to waste time and the online community also facilitated excessiveplay (Hussain & Griffiths, 2009). The gamers claimed about the factors ofexcessive playing play such as raiding, leveling up and belonging to a guild.They also viewed playing video games as their hobby. Excessive playing videogames can cause conflict.
They already practice in the game but when they applyto the daily life, it goes wrong. Hedin (2008) gave an example when a man knowsthat he is not supposed to hurt a girl but in the gaming world he cannot abideto such an ideal because the violence of the game is a necessary part toachieve the goal. 2.
9 Effect Of Playing Video Gameson Career and AcademicsAs stated by Daues(2017) bad grades and poor job performance are the result of video gaming. Theplayers lack of focus and just doing the minimal amount of effort in doingworks in the class or to keep their jobs. The players chose gaming over otherparts of their life. They also mentioned their motivation reduced to improvetheir situation in their careers or academics. In this study, the researcher also mentioned anotherconsequence which is the blatant time that the players felt was wasted.
Theamount of time they had spent on playing video game was supposedly the time forthem to study and concentrate in completing their works. The amount of time in time spent playing video gamesoften added up to to days, weeks, months, or years.Prot, McDonald, Anderson& Gentile (2012) agreed that high amount of time on screen media which isreferring to video game play is associated with poorer school performance. Theamount of time that should be spent on activities such as reading, doinghomework or other activites may be displaced with the time of playing videogames (Gentile, Lynch & Linder, 2004; cited from Prot, McDonald, Anderson& Gentile, 2012). 2.
10 Video Games Increase Violence andAggressionComputer games play abig role in this culture today and the consequences of playing them have been atopic of debates. One of the consequences is increasing aggressiveness(Anderson & Bushman, 2001; cited from Campit, 2015). Aggression can bedefined as a barrier in the development of good social skills since it is linkedwith violent computer games. When engaging with aggressionit may lead to arguments and name calling with others. Apart from that, arguingand spreading rumors also contribute to aggression (Williams & Skoric 2005;cited from Ferguson, 2011). All of that these are the examples of aggression.
Two models have beenintroduced related to the video game violence. The first one is a catalystmodel about the serious aggression and violence results from a combination ofgenetic and proximal environmental influences (such as family and peers) butthat distal environmental factors such as media have little influence onbehavior (Ferguson, 2011). He hasdeveloped the difference view in which personality traits such as psychoticisminteract with violent video game exposure to produce serious aggression as thesecond model. 2.11 Effect of Video Games on Management of TimeStudents tend to usethe Internet not for beneficial purpose and they only waste a lot of time. Theonline usage is usually could last up to 20 hours and they tend to spend theirtime of playing video games from 40 to 80 hours per week.
The sleep patterns aredisrupted because of late night online (Ozcan & Buzlu, 2007). Hussain and Griffiths(2009) agreed that the gamers experienced time loss to such an extent that somegamers set an alarm to alert them of the time. It was also a reason for thelevel of involvement that is required when playing the video games. The effectsof time loss and spending too much time on video games can create problems.
The gamers are willingto sacrifice their sleep time and other necessities in real life just to staylonger in virtual world. Factor that drives players to spend a lot of time onplaying the video game is the feeling of guilt. They do not want to disappointtheir teammates, they believe if they leave the game, their teammates might notwin the game (Duchneaut, Yee, Nickell & Moore, 2006; cited from RubijesminAbdul Latif, Norshakirah Abdul Aziz & Mohd Taufik Abdul Jalil, 2017). 2.
12 PlayingVideo Games Leads to Problem in a Relationship Playing video gamesalso bring negative consequence to the relationship. According to Young (1999;cited from Rubijesmin Abdul Latif, Norshakirah Abdul Aziz & Mohd TaufikAbdul Jalil, 2017) 53% of those people who are addicted to the Internet werereported to have some serious relationship problems. They spend less time withthe people in their life because they fill most of their time on the Internet.Apart from that, marriages have been discovered as the most affected since itinvolves responsibilities and duties at home.Hussain & Griffiths(2009) also agreed that the relationship with the loved ones will be affectedas they prefer to stay at home rather than going out with their family duringtheir leisure time.
This consequence may breakdown the relationships andfriendships. There was a case atNevada, a couple has been sentenced to be guilty because they neglected theirchildren. They have left their babies starving and suffering to death. All ofthis happened because of addiction to the Internet and video games (Jones,2007; cited from Rubijesmin et al., 2017). This should be taken as a lessonbecause addiction brings negativity towards people in the social life. 2.
13 Consequences of Playing VideoGames on HealthPlaying video game toomuch can lead to unhealthy lifestyle. Playing more computer games cause peoplebecome lazy and stay at home only, which they lack of doing activity andgetting fat easily. Zamani, Chashmi & Hedayati (2009) considered thisproblem as a biological problem. In psychological dimension, computer gameshave a negative relationship with mental health and have a direct implicationon their violent behavior, anxiety, depression and isolation of thoseadolescents who play these games. Level and intensity of violence in the game,the ability of player in differentiating virtual world and real world, player’sability to inhibit their desires and motivation, the values they are brought upwith or living with as well as the values that are in the context and contentof the games are the factors of psychological health from the impact of playingcomputer games.
Other than that, theyalso stated that many studies show that those people who are addicted tocomputer games have high heart beat and blood pressure because of too muchexcitement and stress. Most of the players neglect their meals time and do notnotice the time passing. It creates a cause and effect relationship between addictionof playing computer games and physical as well as mental health. According to Griffiths(2005) in his study of “video games and health” other cases have been reportedsuch as the risk of epileptic seizures while playing video games in photo-sensitiveindividuals with epilepsy is well established. The seizures are most likely tooccur during rapid scene changes and when games include patterns of highlyintense repetition and flickering. Occasional players seem to be just assusceptible because seizures and excessive play do not seem to be linkeddirectly.
Playing video games may also cause to auditory hallucinations,enuresis, encopresis, wrist pain, neck pain, elbow pain, tenosynovitis,hand-arm vibration syndrome, repetitive strain injuries, peripheral neuropathyand obesity. 2.14 Parents’Role to Control Their Children from Playing Video Games Too Much One of the ways tocontrol excessive playing of video games is the parents’ role. Blaszczynski(2008) focused on parents where it is arguably their responsibility to ensurethat their children do not play video games excessively, in the same way likethey should ensure that their children do not watch television excessively, orthat they do not play football excessively etc. This is the parents’ duty toteach their child how to manage their time effectively. This is not an easytask and some parents may find it easier to sometimes let their children carryon playing games longer than they should, or may not to even attempt to limittheir play at all. Thus, parents should aware and limit their children fromplaying video games too much.
Zamani, Chashmi & Hedayati (2009) alsoagreed with the involvement of parents in order to control the excessive payingof video games. Parents should teach their children the proper culture ofplaying games. The wide usage of computer games among the adolescents as one ofthe main worries. All of these are because games may create a more attractiveenvironment compared to school works and distract with school and academic performanceof children. They need to make sureto spend time with their children more instead of focusing in their work only. 2.
15 Professional Help as aTreatment of Internet Gaming AddictionInternet addiction hasbecome a phenomenon, so the professional helps in some countries like UnitedStates, Canada, China, Korea and Netherlands have opened treatment centers forvideo game addiction (Kalke & Raschke, 2004). A study using methylphenidatein 62 Korean children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorderor known as ADHD and internet video game addiction was reported (Griffith,2008). After 8 weeks of treatment, there was a reduction in measures ofinternet use scores and internet usage times.
These measures were positivelycorrelated with measures of attention. Thus, Methylphenidate (MPH) is suggestedas a potential treatment of Internet addiction including excessive computergame addiction.Apart from that, thegamers also can practice another therapy at home which is to relieve eyes andmuscle tension. According to Young (2009) eyes and muscles need to rest, so it iswise to take a brief eye-focusing break every 20 minutes to prevent eyestrain.
The gamers can look up from the game and focus on something in the distance forseveral seconds, while doing it, they need to get up and move around for aminute or two to relieve muscle tension.