2.    Universitystudents’ sleep patterns and what can disturb their sleep.3.    Itwas an observational study.4.

    Thevariables involved in this study were behavior, fatigue, academic performance,sleep patterns and habits, and physical, emotional and psychological factors.5.    Sleephabits and patterns, and physical, psychological, and emotional factswere predictive variables.6.

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    Behavior,academic performance and fatigue werethe predicted variables.7.    Thepurpose of this study was to portray what the causes of lower sleep quality and patterns of sleep incollege students.8.    Theparticipants were students aged 17 to 24, 420 male and 705 female from auniversity in the Midwest. These students were either entered in a draw forgift certificates from $25-$150 value or they could get a class credit forcertain psychology courses.

Of these participants, most were Caucasian at 86%,and the rest were Asian or Pacific Islander at 5%, African American at 2%,biracial at 2%, American Indian or Alaskan Native at 1%, and Hispanic at 0.4%(3% did not specify or chose other). 9.    Thefollowing materials were used: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index whichmeasures seven factors affecting sleep over the last month on a 0-3 scale, 3being the worst. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale has eight factors, checking how tiredthe participant has felt over the past 6 months, also on a 0-3 scale, 3 beingthe sleepiest.

The Horne-Ostberg Morningness Eveningness Scale whereparticipants select time preferences for activities between 5:00 a.m. and 12:00p.m. The Subjective Units of Distress Scale measures participants’ level ofstress. The Profile of Mood States measures how much participants feeldepression, tension, fatigue, confusion, vigor, and anger.

10. Anemail was sent to the eligible students and a survey was kept online in themiddle of the semester for a period of 4 weeks. After finishing the surveystudents could go to a different site to enter the raffle.11.

Theresult was that college students have chronically restricted sleep as well aspoor sleep quality. Inferior quality sleepers have higher negative mood scoresand more illness. These sleepers also drink more alcohol than others and ingestmore prescription medications to stay awake. The largest cause for poor sleepquality was reported to be stress.