3D bioprinting offers: highly precise cell placement and high digital control of speed, resolution, cell concentration, drop volume, and diameter of printed cells. The current medical uses of 3D printing can be organized into several broad categories: tissue and organ fabrication; creating prosthetics, implants, and anatomical models; and pharmaceutical research concerning drug discovery, delivery, and dosage forms. An analysation of these medical applications follows:Tissue or organ failures are due to aging, diseases and accidents is a severely critical medical problem, the contemporary treatment for organ failure depends mostly on organ transplants from living or recently deceased donors in which there is a constant shortage. This problem could possibly be eradicated by using cells taken from the patient’s own organ to build a replacement organ with Bioprinters, completely minimizing the risk of tissue rejection that often happens with real transplanted organs, subsequently saving the patient from taking immunosuppressants for the rest of their life. The use of 3D printers as part of the standard pipeline procedure of organ transplantation could save thousands of lives every year. In the United Kingdom, throughout 2017 the number of patients needing organ transplants is still high, with 2,456 successful transplants and 6,500 people in the waiting as well as the general number of people receiving transplants in a year has reached 4,753, an increase of 20% in the last five years.
The most common printer for Bioprinting any inkjet-based printing but there is also the extrusion-based and laser-based printers.The bioink printer deposits “bioink,” droplets of living cells or biomaterials in layers. Multiple printheads can be used to deposit different cell types (organ-specific, blood vessel, muscle cells), a necessary feature for fabricating whole heterocellular tissues and organs.
Laser printers have also been employed in the cell printing process, in which laser energy is used to excite the cells in a particular pattern, providing spatial control of the cellular environment.