6.Software and HardwareTo ensure compliance the following software and hardware packages have been created by companies to support with Technical drawing standards that are both national and international.AutoDesk is  the most prominent software package within the educational system due to the scope of programmes it offers. This ranges from AutoCAD to Inventus to support in the production of both 2D/3D modelling. This package was developed by John Walker to support many industries with computer aided designs. This industries mentioned range from construction, engineering to entertainment. Hardware that a business will adopt to support CAD within the company’s operations, will depend on the scale of detail which is required. Competent computer systems are required to be installed to support the creation of CAD drawings.These computer systems require higher RAM, Hard drives and processing powers to offer optimal efficiency. Due to the nature of technological advancements company’s need to review hardware and software packages consistently to maintain compliance and stay in range or ahead of its competitors. This included updating processing power to meet changes in software updates. Additionally Monitors need to offer clear resolution and limit the distortion of imaging. This can be reduced by using bigger systems that are compatible with 4K to offer increased accuracy when creating such technical drawings.Plotters which have slowly been phased out of operation due to the introduction of more technically capable printers, have limitations with the sizing of the device. This relates to the size and scale that a company needs to produce larger drawings. However smaller printers can produce the same standard quality on a smaller scale. Scanner allow hard copy drawings to take digital form. When as business seeks to introduce such products into the work based operations the following needs to be considered. The resolution at which the device can processed and size of the scanner. This equipment has many advantages due to technological evolution and broadened communication channels. With the ability to digitize physical documents information can be passed more freely between internal company structures and customers. Digitized information can be sent across the globe due to e-mail systems. This offers many opportunities for products to be adapted to customer needs quickly, and further offers the ability outsource production teams which can reduce costs.   Moreover the introduction of Tablets (PDA) such as IPads have further facilitated the ability to complete CAD drawings on the move. This enables more customer friendly approach to design as the customer can be present at the time. This empowers standards and requirements to be established clearly and further aid the production team with effective budgeting strategies.  7. Software and Hardware relationshipFrom looking at the many types of software and hardware packages available to companies, it is clear to see that both areas are dependent on each other. Without the use of autoDesk software packages, sketches can not be digitized and dimensioned with the accuracy that computer systems can offer. Additionally without the hardware such as printers the finished drawings will not take physical form. Both packages have the ability to further support the compliance with national and international standards as software packages are coded to comply, and templates can be created to ensure drawings are printed within the BS888 standards. The ease of access is another way to determine a clear relationship between the both due to portable devices. This  enables drawings be created on the move and  increases accessibility to all workers. As mentioned previous portable devices have enable business to become more customer focused, with a new way to approach working methods. Hardware offers the ability for businesses to evolve through the use of powerful computer based systems. This increases their scope to introduce new software packages into the workplace which can further improve efficiency and potential to offer new services. The use of such systems to turn computer coded algorithm in physical form require consistent review periods to help identify upgrade opportunities and requirements.There is a third entity that ties into the relationship between software and hardware, this is known as peopleware. This term refers to development and maintenance of computer systems within the business. This extends further to solving issues with software creators, productivity and team dynamics. These individuals are vital for the efficiency of business operations and the potential to grow with technological advancements.    CAD has brought many benefits to the manufacturing process, these have been discussed below: 3D CAD files can quickly be transferred to drive Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) production software. The information inputted from the CAM operates machinery and other industrial tools through the use of Computer- Numerical- Control (CNC). This type of process is used in speed machining (lathes) to bring increased accuracy.Software packages for both CAD/CAM enables tool pathing to be checked prior to material being cut. The use of stimulation features support the control of waste material and  reduction in scrap costs, through the virtual domain of the machining process.  Additionally, these simulations identify manufacturing run times and support project planning process. The budget can benefit from CAD/CAM systems as material amounts and costing have increased accuracy with machining tolerance and dimensioning generated from CAD drawings.  However the introduction of these systems breeds risk in the form of machining mistakes. This stems from the conversion of CAD data into CAM format. INspections are required to ensure all dimensions are accurate to reduce scrapped work.CAD has brought new tooling benefits to the manufacturing industry in the form of molded/casted or pressed parts through the use of CAD data. The ability to use send data across the world via email, enabled quotes and production costs to be compared. Additionally, the potential for increased workforces offers greater production opportunities at the fraction of the price. 3D modelling within CAD enables manufacturing engineers to design tooling, custom parts at a quicker rate. This support the use of CAD as a time saving component within manufacturing.  Outsourcing breeds cost saving and offers increased skill bases workforces across the world. The use of CAD now forms the base for some of the most lucrative contracts within the engineering industry and depicts whether certain manufacturing companies are awarded the revenue. The use of bill generation within CAD software offers better quotation opportunities and budgeting for companies starting new projects.The option to send data across that meets standards such as BS888, enables outsourcing to become more accessible with language barriers being broken down. This offers cheaper resourcing and increased profit margin for the company who seeks to outsource.   The introduction of free or minimal cost CAD programs enable supply chains to view documents and add extra context to requirements with the use of notes or manipulation of the date. Resulting in the product becoming more customer facing and ensures the end standard meets the target audience. Lastly CAD programs enhance the inspection in manufacturing, as an objective check is introduced through comparing physical parts against CAD drawing dimensioning. The utilisation of CMM (Coordinate measuring machines) provide another layer of checking accuracy of products. This information is typically achieved by using CAD generated data from the design process. The introduction of 3D printers supports the manufacturing process with the ability to produce parts or modules directly from the CAD data. 3D offer increased scope within the manufacturing industry with the ability to print final production parts in a number of materials such as polymers, metals and ceramics. 8.Justification for CAD within manufacturingOverall it is clear to see that CAD drawings have enabled the manufacturing process to evolve with technological advancements. CAD offers many benefits as discussed above which further increase operational scope. However this is all dependant on the investment companies are willing to make into both software,hardware and peopleware. Without these investments the ability to manufacture efficiently and with greater accuracy will be hindered. This can see competitors increase their scale and gain greater market share. It is vital that drawings created comply with National and International conventions to aid in the production