8.    
References

 

Sr.no

Apparatus
Required

Unit
Cost

Quantity

Total
Cost

1

Gendorri
Pump

5500

1

5500

2

Exhaust
Fan

2500

2

5000

3

Shell
S-2 Oil for Makeup 25litre

8000

1

8000

4

Manufacturing/ Maintenance Cost

5000

1

5000

7.    
Budget
Description

 

 

 

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

March

Apr

May

June

Topic Selection

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Literature Review

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Experimentation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maintenance of
Apparatus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Semester Report
Submission

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Results

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thesis Writing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Journal Paper

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proposed
work plan is described in the table below.

6.    
Work
Schedule Plan

 

5.    
Utilization
of Research Results

Obtained results from experimental
analysis were compared with mathematical simulation performed earlier on this
project.

4.2.   Comparative Analysis

Temperature at different points of
apparatus was obtained by already installed thermocouples in apparatus. By
usage of data acquisition (DAQ) connected to PC temperatures at different
points were automatically saved in excel file using LABVIEW software.
Experimental data obtained was processed and energy wasted in insulation,
energy provided to heat transfer fluid (HTF) and cumulative energy stored in
EPCM was calculated. From cumulative energy stored compatibility of system to
use with Solar Refrigeration/AC and power generation system was analyzed.

4.1.   Experimental Analysis

6)     
Analyze
EPCM-TES compatibility with Solar Refrigeration/AC and power generation systems
using First law analysis

5)     
Compare
with theoretical simulation

4)     
Process
the experimental data to obtain secondary results

3)     
Conduct
detailed experimentation under different flow rates and inlet temperature
conditions

2)     
Develop
SOP, and design of experiment

1)     
Install,
examine and bring the apparatus to running condition

Steps for executing the project are as under:

In this work experimental analysis of latent heat thermal
energy storage will be done using PCM products Limited’s H-220 (NaNO3-KNO3
in 50:50 composition) as phase change material (PCM). The basic aim of this
work is to establish utilization of EPCM system for thermal energy storage to
combine further with the Refrigeration, Air conditioned and/or power generation
systems of RERDC lab UET Taxila. This project is continuity of three previous
projects, two conducted at undergraduate and another at Master’s level.
Previous work has experimented a small scale thermal energy storage system
using Adipic acid (MP 150 C) as PCM. Master’s work established the current
system’s performance using mathematical modelling and simulation. While in
third project designing, fabrication and testing of apparatus was done. In this
work first of all apparatus was examined. It was founded that oil pump
sealing’s were break downed. Two solutions were suggested to solve this
problem. First, oil pump may be replaced. Second sealing’s may be replaced.
Both solutions were approached. Replacement of sealing was easy solution so it
was adopted. For replacement of oil pump another oil pump was purchased.
Re-examination of apparatus was done and apparatus was brought to running
condition. For safely operate the project safety operating procedure (SOP) was
developed. Operating input temperatures were decided as 220

235

, 250

, 265

, 280

. Operating input flow rates were decided
as 4

, 3.33

, and 2.67

 for 3000RPM, 2500RPM and 2000RPM respectively.

4.    
Methodology
of Research

Literature Gap

Phase change material is a
substance having capability to melt and solidified at certain temperature and
store large amount of energy when changing its phase i, e from solid to liquid
and vice versa. In our work PCM capsules have 76 mm diameter. PCM are classified
as organic PCM and inorganic PCM, Eutectic and hygroscopic. Organic PCM are
further classified into paraffin and non-paraffin PCM. Paraffin wax is the
common example of paraffin PCM. It’s made the straight chain n-alkanes (CH3–(CH2)n–CH3).
Non-paraffin PCM are fatty acids and glycol. Inorganic PCM are salts, metals,
alloys and salts hydrate. They include the sodium sulphate deca hydrate and
calcium chloride hexahydrate.

3.5.   Phase Change Material (PCM) based
Thermal Energy Storage

Sensible heat based thermal energy can be stored by changing
the temperature of the storage media. The storage media used for the sensible
heat based energy storage are water, clay and earth. In this system the storage
medium does not change its phase by varying the temperature range. The
materials that we use in this category for the high temperature are ceramic
materials, concrete and molten salts. Molten salts can be used for the thermal
applications but they have high freezing point about 100 0C.

3.4.   Sensible Heat Based Thermal Energy
Storage

Latent heat is the form of thermal energy which released or
absorbed during a constant temperature process. Latent heat is released or
absorbed when changing the state of the substance without changing the
temperature. Thermal energy can be stored when the substance reaches a
temperature at which it change its phase usually from solid to liquid. At the
phase change temperature material absorb a large amount of heat which is known
as latent heat of fusion.

3.3.   Latent Heat Based Thermal Energy
Storage

One of the major part of the energy storage is the Thermal
Energy Storage (TES).Thermal energy storage systems use the different methods
and technologies to store the energy in the form of heat, electricity and other
forms of energy. Thera are the three methods used to store the thermal energy
that are mostly used now a days. These methods are: Latent heat based energy
storage method, sensible heat based energy storage method and the phase change
material based energy storage method. In our project we will use the
Encapsulated Phase Change Material (EPCM) Based thermal energy storage method
to store the thermal energy. The selection of the energy storage method depends
upon the temperature of the storage media. Thermal energy can be stored at both
low temperature and high temperature. In our work we will use the temperature
range of 2200C, 2350C, 2500C, 265C0,
2800C.

3.2.   Thermal energy storage

 

      ii.           
By absorbing the radiations in form of
thermal energy storage which can be utilized for cooling, heating, power
generation and many other applications.

       
i.           
By changing the electromagnetic
radiation directly into current and voltage by using the photovoltaic cells.

Thermal Energy can be stored by different methods and
technologies. By the specific technology excess amount of thermal energy can be
stored and be utilized later ranging from small to large scales. Examples of
the thermal energy storage include storing the energy from summer heat to use
in winter or winter cold to use in summer as air conditioning. Different types
of the storage media can be used for the thermal energy storage such as water,
eutectic solutions and phase change materials. Now a days there are many
methods that can store the thermal energy that can be used from few days to
years. Both types of heat, latent heat and the sensible heat are used for
thermal energy storage with high temperature. Eutectic solutions of the
different metals such as Aluminum and Silicon (AlSi12) are used for
the thermal energy storage. Renewable energy can be utilized in major different
areas such as water and air cooling and heating and rural services. Renewable
energy can be achieved from the natural process in various forms. It cane
obtained from sun or the waste materials dumped in the earth. Renewable energy
resources are the solar heat from the sun, waste materials, biofuels, biomass,
wind and oceans. Solar energy, solar radiations and heat from sun is utilize by
using different methods and technologies such as photovoltaic cells and
concentrated solar power (CSP). Energy from the solar radiation can be utilized
in two ways:

3.1.   Solar Thermal Technologies

3.    
Literature
Review

               
vi.           
To perform the First Law Analysis to use
the stored energy in project of Solar Refrigeration and Solar Power Generation.

                 
v.           
To investigate effect of input
parameters like HTF temperature and mass flow rate on performance of EPCM-TES.

               
iv.           
To perform calculations on readings
taken by apparatus.

               
iii.           
 To investigate effect of changing flow
direction during discharging phase on performance of EPCM-TES.

                 
ii.           
To predict performance of an EPCM-TES.

                   
i.           
To maintain the apparatus for effective
experimental results.

  Following are the objectives of the research:

Aim of the study   is to evaluate the performance of EPCM based
Thermal Energy Storage System and to interpret the experimental results by
varying the temperatures, direction of flow, during different
charging/discharging cycles for concentrated solar thermal applications and to
compare the results with the mathematical model.

2.    
Aims
& Objectives

 

This study will evaluate the actual performance of phase
change material H220 having phase change temperature 220 ?C. To find the
effectiveness of PCM material for thermal energy storage the system is tested
In terms of time charging/discharging cycles, energy storage density and
fraction of latent energy stored. An overall analysis will be performed on this
system during different charging and discharging cycles and its ability to
store thermal energy will be evaluated. This study will help to improve the
effectiveness of PCM based thermal energy storage systems for R lab.

Now a day’s world is completely dependent on fossil fuel
reservoirs to fulfill its energy demands. The fact is that these reservoirs are
rapidly consumed and will be unavailable one day. Thus the idea to search and
invent other renewable energy resources is basic need of today, to accomplish
world’s energy needs that is increasing with the passage of time. Among all the
renewable energy resources, the solar energy is most important one because of
its enrich supply everywhere on earth and it can be directly converted to the
electricity by the help of solar cell that are also available in the form of
solar panels now a days. The main challenge with solar energy is its
availability only with sun light and consequently the mechanism for its
storage. The commercial progress for storage systems for sensible heat energy
is more than for latent heat energy and storage of energy based on phase change
materials that is viable because variations of temperature are small, less
capital investment is required and can store energy on large scales.

1.    
Problem
Statement

Experimental
Analysis of Encapsulated Phase Change Material Based Thermal Energy Storage

 

 

 

 

Nadir Abbas                                                       14-ME-23

Arslan Ameen                                                     14-ME-28

Khalid Rafique                                                   14-ME-29

Ahmad Raza Tahir                                             14-ME-30

Marya Saeed                                                       14-ME-184

Advisor

Engr.Najam ul Hassan

Lecturer

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

FACULTY OF MECHANICAL & AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

TAXILA

Jan, 2018

Experimental Analysis of Encapsulated Phase Change
Material Based Thermal Energy Storage

 

Nadir Abbas                                                       14-ME-23

Arslan Ameen                                                     14-ME-28

Khalid Rafique                                                   14-ME-29

Ahmad Raza Tahir                                             14-ME-30

Marya Saeed                                                       14-ME-184

 

A
Final year project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
degree of

 

B.Sc. Mechanical Engineering

Project
Advisor:

Engr. Najam ul Hassan

Lecturer

 

Neutral
Examiner Signature:________________________________________

 

Project Advisor Signature:_________________________________________

 

 

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

FACULTY OF MECHANICAL &
AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING
AND TECHNOLOGY TAXILA

Jan, 2018

 

 

Abstract

The purpose of
this experimental analysis is to validate the Encapsulated Phase Change material
based Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrated Solar power applications. The
mixture of NaNO3-KNO3 to be used as Phase change material (PCM) encapsulated in
cylindrical shaped capsules made of Stainless steel. The experiment is to be
operated at different input parameters i.e. Temperature(2200C,2350C,2500C,2650C,280C),RPM(2000,
2500,3000).The results are obtained for both charging and discharging purposes
to evaluate the heat storing and releasing ability of PCM in specified
time.  The results of experiment will be
compared with mathematical model which is already developed.

 

 

Contents
Abstract 4
1.       Problem
Statement 6
2.       Aims &
Objectives. 7
3.       Literature
Review.. 7
3.1.      Solar
Thermal Technologies. 7
3.2.      Thermal
energy storage. 8
3.3.      Latent Heat
Based Thermal Energy Storage. 9
3.4.      Sensible
Heat Based Thermal Energy Storage. 9
3.5.      Phase
Change Material (PCM) base Thermal Energy Storage. 9
4.       Methodology
of Research. 10
4.1.      Experimental
Analysis. 11
4.2.      Comparative
Analysis. 11
5.       Utilization
of Research Results. 12
6.       Work
Schedule Plan. 12
8.       References. 13