A 30 year old female whom was advised by her doctorto lose weight as her Body Mass Index is 32kg.m² is going to carry out a 6 weekexercise plan. As a result, a thorough exercise program focusing oncardio-based machines incorporating a number of resistance exercises andendurance training in order to increase lean muscle mass; lose body fat andoverall increase the client’s aerobic fitness will be put in place.
The exercise program will include three 1 hoursessions a week. In order for the client to achieve optimal results within the6 week training period, a consistent training regime with a minimum of 3 hoursa week will increase the probability and effectiveness that the client achievesher weight loss goal. Saris et al. recommended that thecurrent physical activity guideline for adults of 225 to 300 minutes per week ofmoderate intensity activity was necessary to prevent the transition of normalweight to overweight or overweight to obese, which was of great importance forlimiting health risks for a number of chronic diseases. The present American College of Sports Medicines’ currentrecommendations for the amount of physical activity in order to promoteclinically significant weight loss is 225-420 minutes a week. Furthermore,Lee et al. observed that inwomen, the risk of weight gain over a three year period was 11% greater inwomen who participated in less than 7.5 metabolic equivalent·hr/wk compared towomen who participated in greater than 21 metabolic equivalent hr/wk(approximately 300 minutes/week of moderate physical activity).
In additionto this, the exercise program aims to decrease the risk factor for the developmentof and the prevalence of health related issues including cardiovasculardiseases such as Coronary Heart Disease. The relationship between the degree of obesity and the incidence ofcardiovascular diseases has been extensively researched and recent observationsof disease occurrence over a number of years indicate that obesity was asignificant independent predictor of cardiovascular diseases, particularlyamong women, a worry in which the client possesses and hopes to eliminate. As aresult, the probability of the client suffering from any of these diseases inthe future will decrease as she makes the decision towards a healthier lifestyle.Firstly, the training regime from week one to threeconsists of a vast array of supersets and circuits in order to maximise the useof the whole body and increase the client’s aerobic fitness. As a result, theclient is stimulating and strengthening theheart and lungs, thereby improving the body’s utilization of oxygen. When the body engages in exercise training severaltimes a week, most, if not all physiologic systems undergoes specificadaptations that increase the body’s efficiency and capacity.The primary functionsof the cardiovascular and respiratory systems are to provide the body with oxygenand nutrients, to rid the body of carbon dioxide and metabolic waste products,to maintain body temperature and the acid-base balance, and to transporthormones from the endocrine glands to their target organs (Wilmore and Costill1994).
Endurance training increases the number ofcapillaries in trained skeletal muscle, thereby allowing a greater capacity forblood flow in the active muscle (Terjung 1995)During exercise, more blood is sent to the active skeletalmuscles, and, as body temperature increases, more blood is sent to the skin.This process is accomplished both by the increase in cardiac output and by the redistributionof blood flow.Subsequently, theexercise’s included in the training regime such as cycling, walking, joggingand running on the treadmill are incorporated into the program in order toexpand and enhance the clients oxidative capacity and blood flow and alsoincrease the efficiency of the performance of the skeletal muscle. As a result of involvementin endurance training, skeletal muscle adapts remarkably well through a smallincrease in the cross-sectional area of fibers, because low- to moderate intensityaerobic activity primarily recruits these fibers (Abernethy, Thayer, Taylor1990). Therefore, prolonged endurance training can lead to a transition of fibres,which have a higher oxidative capacity. This adaptation contributes to thegreater maximal oxygen consumption and the fatigue resistance of these fibres.
In contrast, total inactivity results in muscle atrophy and loss of bonemineral and mass.Endurance training also increases the capacity ofskeletal muscle to store glycogen (Kiens et al. 1993). As a result, the abilityof trained muscles to use fat as an energy source is also improved, and thisgreater reliance on fat spares glycogen stores, thus protects against the depletion of carbohydratestores during exercise.
These changes in muscle and in cardiorespiratory functions are responsible forincreases in both VO? 2 max and lactate threshold. Hence, an individual who participatesin endurance training can thus perform at considerably higher rates of workthan an untrained individual.Approaching week 4 of the training regime, a widevariety of resistance exercises such as Leg Press, Leg Extensions, ShoulderPress and many more were added into the client’s program. This diversifies theexercise program and gives the client an insight into the variation ofexercises that can be performed.
It also allows the body to adapt to differentexercises especially resistance based training which in turn increases musclemass and strength, assists loss of body fat and can have a dramatic effect onbody composition.The cardiovascular and respiratory responses forresistance training are somewhat similar to those mentioned about the endurancetraining. Resistance training also has a significant metabolic adaptation byincreasing resting metabolism. There are many other physiological adaptations whichoccur after exercise which enhance the body’s ability to perform and live of ahigher quality.
ConclusionThere is extensiveresearch on the effectiveness of diet- induced weight loss, exercise induced weightloss and a combination of both. Changesin weight are affected by the amount of energy expended versus the amount ofenergy consumed. Therefore, if theenergy expenditure is lower than the dietary consumption, this will result in anegative energy balance and weight gain will occur.Miller et al.conducted a meta-analysis of the past 25 years of weight loss research usingdiet, exercise or diet plus exercise intervention and found from the presentliterature, caloricrestriction appears to have a more profound and consistent effect on weightloss compared to exercise training alone. The data showed that a 15-week dietor diet plus exercise program produces a weight loss of about 11 kg, with a 6.
6+/- 0.5 and 8.6 +/- 0.8 kg maintained loss after one year, respectively.
Similarly, a systematic review andmeta-analysis focused on comparing the effectiveness of diet, exercise or diet withexercise for weight loss carried out by James E Clark indicated a continuumeffectiveness of a combination of diet and exercise than that of a hypo caloricdiet. A hypo caloric balanceis necessary for changing body composition. Therefore, in order to furtheroptimise the clients weight loss goal, a training program which includes calorierestriction would be gradually more effective in the long term and would enableher to be more aware of her diet and the foods she intakes. However, one of thepossible constraints that may affect the client is lack of motivation tocontinue the complete training program. As she works in an office, she sits most of the day and therefore lives a verysedentary lifestyle.
As a result, the transition from her current lifestyle tothe regime put in place for her may result as unmanageable.