a)     
Natural Family Planning     

–         
Rhythm Withdrawal Calendar Methods

Advantage: It is an inexpensive and
ideal way to prevent pregnancy for those with religious belief that prevents
them from using other forms of contraceptives (Prior, 2017).

Disadvantage: Does not protect
against any form of STIs.  A woman must
have pretty regular periods as this method works best if ovulation occurs
regularly.   

Effectiveness: this method has a
22% failure rate when done correctly (Center for Disease and Control, 2017).

Contraindication: Other than there
being no protection against STI, there is no health contraindication noted.

 

–         
Condoms 

Advantage: Protects against
STI.  Both women and men can have control
over this form of birth control. This is an immediate form of reversible
contraception (Prior, 2017).

Disadvantage: Must be applied
prior to intercourse. Can only be used once.  Cannot be used with oil based lubrication or
lotion as it can increase risk of breakage (Center for Disease and Control,
2017)

Effectiveness: condoms has a 21%
failure rate when used correctly (Center for Disease and Control, 2017)

Contraindication: Most condoms are
latex and should be avoided in those with latex allergies (Prior, 2017).

 

 

 

–         
Diaphragm

Advantage: No hormones
involved.  Woman has total control over
this form of birth control.  Has some
protection from STI because it is used with spermicide jelly. Reversible form of contraception.

Disadvantage: Women must be fitted to
ensure correct sizing, if significant weight is loss or gain must be
refitted.  Must be applied at least 6
hours prior to intercourse and must stay in for a minimum of 6 hours afterward
but no more than 24 hours.  Increase risk
of vaginal irritation, toxic shock syndrome, and UTI (Prior, 2017).

Effectiveness: There is a 12%
failure rate and therefore 88% effective (Center for Disease and Control, 2017).

Contraindication: Should not be used
in those with latex allergy (Prior, 2017). 

 

b)    
Oral Contraceptive Pills

–         
Progestin/Estrogen

Advantage:

–         
Regulate menstrual cycle

–         
Lighten blood flow during
menstrual cycle

–         
Alleviate cramps

–         
Lower risks of certain
cancers such as: ovarian, colon, and endometrial

(Office of Women’s Health,
2017)

–         
Increase bone mass

–         
Decrease risk of pelvic
inflammatory disease

–         
Reversible form of
contraception

(Prior, 2017)

Disadvantage:

–         
Nausea

–         
Weight gain

–         
Breast pain/discomfort

–         
Decrease libido

–         
Headaches

–         
Itchiness of the skin

–         
Increase BP

–         
Increase risk of
developing blood clots

–         
Increased risk of
developing breast cancer

Effectiveness: When used
correctly oral birth control pills are 99.7% effective

Contraindications: Women with the
following should not be prescribed a hormonal birth control:

–         
blood pressure above
140/90

–         
history of blood clots or
family history of blood clots

–         
diabetics

–         
liver disease

–         
Lupus

–         
smokes 15 cigarettes or
more per day

(Prior, 2017)

 

–         
Progestin/Estrogen Extended Cycle

Disadvantage: Because of the decrease menstrual cycle, there will be no
cycle to reassure that there is no pregnancy

Advantage: Less menstrual cycle with lighter bleeding and decrease
ovulation. Reversible form of contraception.

Effectiveness: same effectiveness as the progestin/estrogen form of oral
contraceptive

Contraindication: same as the progestin/estrogen form of oral contraceptive

(Prior, 2017)

–         
Progestin Only

Disadvantage: must be taken every day and at the same time daily.  This type of oral birth control does not have
free days where no pill is needed.  There
is also an increased risk of increase ectopic pregnancy with progestin only
birth control.

Advantage: ideal for breastfeeding mothers or those who cannot take
oral birth control in the estrogen/progestin form. Reversible.

Effectiveness: same as any other oral contraceptive at 99.7%.

Contraindication: same as the progestin/estrogen form of oral contraceptive

(Prior, 2017)