A structure should be reinforced depending on its load
capacity and the structure’s use. There are ways on designing a structure to
maximize the serviceability and ultimate performance. One of these techniques
is using connectors in reinforced concrete. Connectors in concrete structures are normally anchors,
ties or fasteners. Ties are used to fasten two or more wythes of masonry
together.  Fasteners are usually attach
equipment, or fixtures to masonry. Anchors on the other hand, are used to
attach masonry to structural supports. 1
Anchorage of steel bolts has gained the attention of many construction
industry because with the use of anchorage of steel can increase the use of
pre-cast system and increase the life span of existing or historical buildings.
The purpose is to make the structure have more strength and stability and to
connect other members to concrete structures transfer both shear and tension
loads from the attachments or such bearing plates and ledgers to the concrete
through anchor bolts and anchorage of steel also improves the flexibility of
the concrete structures. 1
Anchors also transfer loads to concrete by friction, chemical bond or
mechanical interlock or the combination. 3.
Anchor bolts can be categorized into two: embedded or cast-in-place anchor
bolts, which is placed during construction and post-installed, which is placed
after anchor bolts is constructed. There is a shear and tension resistance in
post installed anchors because of expansion against the masonry or by bonding
with adhesives. 1 2

One of the parameter included is the tensile strength of anchor
bolts. The method to be used in determining the strength of the anchor bolts is
the “pull out test.” The pull out test method requires a metal disk to pull
together with a layer of concrete attached to the surface. The pull out testing’s
procedures includes, placing a small piece of equipment to the exterior bolt
nut. This is then pulled out to a designated stress load to determine how
strong the exterior bolt is. 4
Pull out failure of anchor bolts is one of the critical
consideration of the designers because it is weak in tension. Klinger &
Mendonca (1982) review about the tensile capacity of anchor bolts using the
available tensile test results. The results are compared in six design
procedures that are available in computing the nominal tension capacity of a
loaded short anchor bolts. Two criteria can be used in calculating the
resistance once an anchor bolt fails due to the pull out of concrete according
to Klinger & Mendonca.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now