Abstract Mobilead hoc networks (MANETs) are one of the fastest oneof the quickest developing zones of research.
It is a collection ofcommunication devices or nodes that wish to communicate with each other withoutthe use of a network infrastructure or any centralized administration. Themobile hosts are not bound to any centralized control like base stations ormobile switching centres.InMANET there has no pre-determined organization of available links. The nodesare all alone responsible for discovering other nodes to communicate.Thisflexibility makes Ad hoc networks attractive to many applications such asmilitary applications, where the network topology may change over very shortperiod of time which shows force’s operational movements, and disaster recoveryoperations, where the existing/fixed infrastructure may be non-operational. Itis also suitable for virtual conferences.Asremote MANET frames impermanent systems which are more vulnerable because ofits fundamental qualities, for example, open medium, dynamic topology, distributedcooperation, and constrained capability.
Inthis thesis, I would try to identify and explain the security threats an ad hocnetwork most commonly faces in different layers, and will induce someCountermeasures for these attacks layer by layer. Section 2 is about the introduction and explanation of MANET.In Section 3attackes related to MANETare identified while in section 4the different types of security threats are discussed related to MANET.InSection5 the possiblecountermeasures are given according to each layer of the network.
Finalconclusion and future directions are given in section 6 of this Article. 2. IntroductionAs the world has become a globalvillage due to the availability of instant information and communication withinno time. The more advancement in communication devices like cell phones,handheld digital devices, laptops, personal digital assistants and wearablecomputers bringing a revolutionary changes in our information society.
Computing era is changing from one computer for one person to UbiquitousComputing age, in which a single user can utilize several electronic platformsthrough which he can access all the required information whenever and whereverneeded.Wireless networks are one of thebest solutions for these ubiquitous devices to interconnect with each other. Asa consequence the wireless communication has been experiencing exponential growthin the past decade.Now we see, all around us thesewireless networks in homes, in office, in platform and everywhere. By usingwireless networks mobile users can use their cellular phone to check e-mail,browse internet, gets daily updates according to his/her needs. Travellers withportable computer can surf the internet from the airports, railway stations andother public locations; tourists can use Global Positioning System and muchmore.There are two basic system modelswhich provide wireless communications. One is fixed backbone wirelesssystem which consists of large number of mobiles nodes and relatively fewer,but more powerful, fixed nodes.
These fixed nodes are hard wired using landlines.The communication between a fixed node and a mobile node occurs via thewireless medium. This required a fixed and permanent infrastructure. On theother hand, the second type is Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) which proposed tosetup a network at required time; however, the transmission range of eachlow-power node is limited to each other’s proximity, and out-of-range nodes arerouted through intermediate nodes. A MANET is believed to be anaccumulation of remote portable hubs that are fit for speaking with each otherwithout the utilization of any earlier system framework or focal organization.The versatile hosts are not limited to any brought together control.
Despitethe fact that this offers unhindered versatility and availability to theclients, The reasonability of system lieson hubs that shape the system. As the range zone of remote system isconstrained because of which different host may required for one hub to tradeinformation with another over the system.In this sort of network, everyportable hub works as a host as well as a router, sending packets for other mobilesnode in the network that may not be inside direct wireless transmission rangeof each other.Every node participates in an adhoc routing protocol that enables it to find multihop ways through the systemto some other hub.The MANET is also calledinfrastructure less networking, since the mobile nodes in the networkdynamically establish routing among themselves to form their own network on thefly.
It is formed instantaneously, anduses multihop routing to transmit information. MANET is an adequateway of establishing communication in such type of situation where geographicalor terrestrial constraints demands a totally distributed network system withoutany fixed base station, such as battlefields, military