ad hoc networks (MANETs) are one of the fastest one
of the quickest developing zones of research. It is a collection of
communication devices or nodes that wish to communicate with each other without
the use of a network infrastructure or any centralized administration. The
mobile hosts are not bound to any centralized control like base stations or
mobile switching centres.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

MANET there has no pre-determined organization of available links. The nodes
are all alone responsible for discovering other nodes to communicate.

flexibility makes Ad hoc networks attractive to many applications such as
military applications, where the network topology may change over very short
period of time which shows force’s operational movements, and disaster recovery
operations, where the existing/fixed infrastructure may be non-operational. It
is also suitable for virtual conferences.

remote MANET frames impermanent systems which are more vulnerable because of
its fundamental qualities, for example, open medium, dynamic topology, distributed
cooperation, and constrained capability.

this thesis, I would try to identify and explain the security threats an ad hoc
network most commonly faces in different layers, and will induce some
Countermeasures for these attacks layer by layer.

Section 2 is about the introduction and explanation of MANET.
In Section 3attackes related to MANET
are identified while in section 4
the different types of security threats are discussed related to MANET.

Section5 the possible
countermeasures are given according to each layer of the network. Final
conclusion and future directions are given in section 6 of this Article.


2. Introduction

As the world has become a global
village due to the availability of instant information and communication within
no time. The more advancement in communication devices like cell phones,
handheld digital devices, laptops, personal digital assistants and wearable
computers bringing a revolutionary changes in our information society.
Computing era is changing from one computer for one person to Ubiquitous
Computing age, in which a single user can utilize several electronic platforms
through which he can access all the required information whenever and wherever

Wireless networks are one of the
best solutions for these ubiquitous devices to interconnect with each other. As
a consequence the wireless communication has been experiencing exponential growth
in the past decade.

Now we see, all around us these
wireless networks in homes, in office, in platform and everywhere. By using
wireless networks mobile users can use their cellular phone to check e-mail,
browse internet, gets daily updates according to his/her needs. Travellers with
portable computer can surf the internet from the airports, railway stations and
other public locations; tourists can use Global Positioning System and much

There are two basic system models
which provide wireless communications.

One is fixed backbone wireless
system which consists of large number of mobiles nodes and relatively fewer,
but more powerful, fixed nodes. These fixed nodes are hard wired using landlines.
The communication between a fixed node and a mobile node occurs via the
wireless medium. This required a fixed and permanent infrastructure. On the
other hand, the second type is Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) which proposed to
setup a network at required time; however, the transmission range of each
low-power node is limited to each other’s proximity, and out-of-range nodes are
routed through intermediate nodes.


A MANET is believed to be an
accumulation of remote portable hubs that are fit for speaking with each other
without the utilization of any earlier system framework or focal organization.
The versatile hosts are not limited to any brought together control. Despite
the fact that this offers unhindered versatility and availability to the

The reasonability of system lies
on hubs that shape the system. As the range zone of remote system is
constrained because of which different host may required for one hub to trade
information with another over the system.

In this sort of network, every
portable hub works as a host as well as a router, sending packets for other mobiles
node in the network that may not be inside direct wireless transmission range
of each other.

Every node participates in an ad
hoc routing protocol that enables it to find multihop ways through the system
to some other hub.

The MANET is also called
infrastructure less networking, since the mobile nodes in the network
dynamically establish routing among themselves to form their own network on the

It is formed instantaneously, and
uses multihop routing to transmit information.

MANET is an adequate
way of establishing communication in such type of situation where geographical
or terrestrial constraints demands a totally distributed network system without
any fixed base station, such as battlefields, military