AbstractIn this paper political discourse is defined through the base of european, Russian, American review. The hypothesis is gender identification on communicative behavior dictated by the choice of Unequivocal and equivocal speech marker presenting on the base of model of description in concord of taking into account gender aspect. The model geometrically has eight parameters : contact emotionally, communicative self-presentation theatrical nature, thematic orientation, politeness, tolerance, communicative leadership, agency, power-control. This paper used political discourse analysis, critical discourse analysis quantitive and qualitative analysis as method in investigation.
Keywords : political discourse,critical discourse analysis, gender communicative behavior, leadership, gender stereotype, agency, tolerance.IntroductionCommunicative behavior becomes one of the many foreground tasks in the study of political discourse as a vital component of the national, identity group, and cultural description. According to IA Sternin (2003), 106.110) we comprehend the established of customs and traditions of age, people, communication and other groups under communicative behavior. This paper investigated the communicative behavior of both genders, man, and woman by interview. Gender peculiarities in the communicative behavior of public figures always draw the attention of scholars and in works of stereotypical forms of male and female are defined as well as cultural and national of verbal and nonverbal communication midst the ethnic cultures representatives. Hence gender communicative behavior is the type of communicative behavior that entails complete description in political discourse. The hypothesis of this paper is gender identification in communicative behavior dictated through the choice of Unequivocal and equivocal speech marker presenting feminine features.
The term “discourse” is a complex and mammoth-like interpretation. Many previous studies mention the term discourse as very ambiguous since its introduction to modern science and the various broad interpretations of discourse. Therefore, the definition of discourse reflected here will focus on the linguistics point of view, especially that of applied linguistics. Discourse analysis defined in M. Stubbs’ textbook (Stubbs 1985;1) is as concerned with language use beyond the boundaries/utterance also with the interrelationship between language and society and concerned with the interactive or dialogue properties of everyday communication. Critical discourse analysis approach used in this paper is N.Fairclough approach implemented that is led to study of production, gender, and national inequality.
In the work of Norman Fairclough “Critical discourse analysis in transdisciplinary research”. This transdisciplinary is considered as “dialogue between two disciplines of the framework may lead to a development of both through a process of each internally approaching the logic of the other as the resource for its own development”. The transdisciplinary approach (Norman Fairclough) and integrationist model (Theo Van Leewn) are used by using qualitative and quantitative research.Baranov A (1998:131- 145) defined political discourse as “the set of discourse practices, identifying the participants of political discourse and forming the defined range of themes of political communication”. Political discourse has a political interview as one of the genre modes in the combination of political media discourses. The political interview is a multifarious communicative phenomenon with the aim to strive for power with the way in shaping public opinion, containing text, context-situational, socio-cultural.
Hence, the model of communicative behavior can also be applied to social of a professional group not just for the national description of people. According to IA Sternin, there are same main factors that schematize the communicative behavior’s description, those are : communicative emotionality, the way of ending talk, communicative self-feeding, ability to contact, communicative democracy, communicative pressure, way of maintaining commiunicative contact, thematic range of conversation, communicative affability, controversy, etiquette of communication, preferable theme for conversation anf type of interlocutor, communicative distance, correlation of non-verbal and verbal communication, physical contact, facial expression, gestures, rate of coversation, and loudness (2003 :106). an explicit denotation of personality ethics is very rarely encountered, especially for women is self-presentation through the plot. Compared with men, for women, the most specific approach of self-presentation is a positive evaluation approach of appearance. The distinct feature in communication behavior is to evade confrontation with inspiration and pay conscientious attention to the words they utterance. Female speech behavior stereotypes are a connection of role position with implicit self-presentation and regarding the compactness of hyper informative information of women.
Histrionic nature of politician is an important component in communicative behavior, “communicative portrait” delineations facilitates us the view to ascertain the role of the gender of politicians. Here, I make Comparative analysis of role of gender to both male and female politicians and the result is alike Table 1 Comparative analysis of politicians’ gender role Roles of male-politicians Roles of fmale-politiciansFighter for social justicePatriotOrdinary PersonFamily manElected respresentative “strong arm” Defender of woman’s interest Patriot Ordinary person Family man Elected representative Noblesse oblige Teacher Skillful homemaker Loving mother Beautiful woman The ability to communicate involves the use of metaphors in political discourse. On the basis of quantitative analysis determined what is the most interesting conceptual field and the proof hypothesis of diachronic shift “mosaic” metaphor. The metaphorical formation is indicated by the “physiological” metaphoric prevalence (during periods of gaining independence by Kazakhstan).
Currently, in political communication, most women use the conceptual field of “nature”, in addition to “production” and “physiological”, the metaphors of “journey”, “space” and “military” occupy the third place. The specific gender of the conceptual field is the metaphor of “home object”, “family” and “fairy tale character” (people do not use it at all). The facts by chance in the conceptual field of men and women prove the redistribution of social forces in society and the assimilation of women in the political space.Tolerance incorporates “Ours” in unequivocal and equivocal ways Quantitative analysis of this data with women from different language cultures on interview materials suggests that the high tolerance of American politicians largely uses deictics implicitly. While Ukraine and Russia reduce the way of showing tolerance in an explicit way. the way of nominalization is the most attractive implicit way among others. Specific tolerance among female politicians of Kazakhstan is defined using the firmness of denotation through direct signals addressed to the group. The results show that in the manifestation of tolerance of women-politicians from the United States level with men-politicians from Kazakhstan.
Unequivocally, Kazakh women show nationally gender-specific aspects of communication behavior The next parameter analyzed is the institute and the quantitative analysis of the unequivocal and equivocal ways of the institution between men shows 2, 5 times higher than women in political discourse. This explains that men in Kazakhstan have a more active position in society and this aspect explains gender differences A parameter in the quantitative analysis of modesty is made in “positive” and “negative” courtesy (2002: 47). Here we also learn tactics of circumvention of answers in pragmatic, semantic, cognitive and classic levels of unequivocal and equivocal ways of deviation topics. The balance of Involvement in public relations and independence forms the basis of modesty In political discourse, men are more conspicuous in politics but in real life, women are admittedly impolite. We should mention that, in our opinion, for women, it is a manifestation of tolerance rather than the low level of trust in the information they convey.
Below, the aspect of modesty coincided with the aspect of tolerance in the model of communicative and also gender behavior is distinguished in political communication. As long as the political discourse becomes the subject of inquiry it is difficult to talk about a variety of topics other than the particular theme that is defined – the scope of activities and combat but women are limited by ideas at the decision-making level and their questions only touch the internal affairs during the discussion and health of the nation and surrounding areas either directly and in a figurative sense.The man at the conceptual level is extroverted and the scope of this professional concept is linked to women’s rarely spoken circumstances. The next interesting fact is the difference from the idea – “finance” at the conceptual level. For the man is associated with the financial welfare of the state, by way of investment, but women, on the contrary, more often think about charities and social programs. In the study of this aspect shown specifically the national image, the woman who shows a balance between career and family with this for men is typical of full devotion to careers and jobs. As a result of this study, we define the thematic specificity of women for the matrimonial as well as the ethical nature system.
As a force, the aspect of communicative behavior is demonstrated in the control of the communication process, and given excellence in the area of power, relations are expressed by controlling topics and initiatives in political discourse. The problem of interaction is central to this research and is based on the interaction of journalists and politicians and uses tactics and strategies by them in solving their communicative goals. The problem is that in media interviews journalists always have the initiative, but in political interviews, on the contrary, power is often possessed by the interviewed politicians. In the interview material it is difficult to determine the frequency of communication initiatives, moreover, correlate with the gender aspect.
The level of leadership in communicative between the male and female politicians of Kazakhstan in the interview as a genre of political discourse in certain aspects is determined, using the terminology of the dialogue mode is performed as a complex feature of the speaker’s behavior through speech according to IN Borissova, on the basis of his formula (2002: 33-45) communicative tones are calculated and The following quantitative data are revealed: 1) the mode of dialogue carried out in political interviews replicates both for women and men connected to the average length of replies in syntagma and this is the kind of narrative dialogue; 2) Communicative leadership Men are superior to women as much as 2.7 times. Female politicians from Kazakhstan recognize in the aspect of leadership and connect with national specific gendered communicative behaviorsConclusionComparative analysis’ result from the view of differentiation of gender show to what extent factor of gender influences communication progression in contrast to other extralinguistic factors. Factors of extralinguistic and intralinguistic on gender influence have to be considered in political discourse formation, e.g Thus, description on the parametric model the specific of gender communicative behavior proves the fact of manifestation of gender differentiation on unequivocal and equivocal means of language expression in modern political discourse as gender indicators that is the data for the description of politician communicative behavior. Consequently, dominant language features echoed in the political interview which is peculiar linguistically.