According to Paul Davies “science emerged from medievalEurope, under the twin influences of Greek Philosophy and the Judeo-Christianthought.”1Theencounters between science and religion had progressed in the historicalscenario from conflict to integration through dialogue. These encounters can besummarized as following. In the first instance science denies religion as apure relic from the past whereas religion denies science as a part of thefallen world which has no access to the real truth. In the progressed instancescience and religion peacefully coexist. This is brought by the realizationthat science itself is not knowledge of the world but only an interpretation ofthe world. This realization is the outcome of postmodern enlightenment in thescientific world.
2When we go through the history of the development in the science we see aparadigm shift from the mechanistic universe towards a quantum universe. 1.1.1.
Mechanical UniverseThe view of universe as a great mechanism is the direct outcomeof the phenomenal success of Newtonian mechanics. The classical or Newtonianphysics with its commitment to the mechanical concept of nature emphasizeddistinctness, definiteness, clarity and exactness. They try to reduceeverything that exist in the universe to a mere mechanism. They claimed thatthey have absolute accuracy, absolute certainty and exact predictability abouteverything that happens in the universe. The four fundamental concepts of themechanical concept of nature are space, time, mass and force. These fourelements keep distinct each other. 3This concept in itself did not have to end up in atheism, but in course of timethis concept became highly vulnerable to it.
In course of time this concept of mechanical universecollapsed on its own weight, i.e., it was unable to fulfill its own promises.It claimed to explain everything but failed to explain even some most ordinaryones.
4Even though this concept suffered decline its influence continued and gavebirth to a new concept of universe, i.e., Logical Positivism. One of itsprimary goals was to banish all traces of metaphysics from philosophy andscience. This claimed an extreme empiricism, i.e., theories can be only justifiedif it is observable.
They denied the non-rational elements like feelings,emotions which are basics of religious experience. So this concept showed astrong inclination towards the atheism.5 1.1.
2.Relativity Theory and Quantum UniverseTwentieth century witnessed the collapse of the reductionistconcept of universe. Quantum theory denies the existence of forces which werethe fundamentals of mechanistic concept. There are only interactions betweenparticles, mediated through fields. By the establishment of relativity theory,it is found that just as space is relative, time is also relative to theobserver’s frame of reference.
6This realization demands that the process of observations requires an observingsystem and an observed system. The subatomic world is described in terms ofquantum physics, in terms of probabilities. Subatomic particles show tendenciesto exist, and atomic events show tendencies to occur.
7This comprehension gave birth to new principles.1.1.3.
Uncertainty Principle andComplementary Principle Classical physics with its insistentquest for clarity and distinctness gave rise to a sharp distinction between theobserving subject and the observed object. The developments in quantum theoryuncovered the impossibility of this division. Uncertainty principle of WernerHeisenberg and the complementary principle of Niels Bohr challenged thetraditional claims of a subjectivity-free scientific knowledge. They admittedthat a certain interruption of subjectivity cannot be escaped.
8 “Theuncertainty principle states that it is in principle impossible to determineexactly both the position and momentum of a particle at the same time.”9 Sothis principle renders that perfect knowledge is unattainable. As correspondingto this principle the complementary principle that exact knowledge andunderstanding could be achieved only by the unification of incompatibleconcepts in a complementary fashion.10The complementary principle gives a comprehensive view of universe which demandus to see the universe as an interconnectedness. Recent progress in science, ifproperly analysed and interpreted, will not appear to be anti-religious. Modernage promotes a healthy and vibrant relationship between science and religion.In the postmodern trends of science, we can see a tendency towards thetranscendence.
1.2. Humanistic psychology: theQuest for Self-Actualization Humanistic psychology, basically an American phenomenon,took shape in the decade after World War II as both a protest movement and aprogram for the future of psychology. The emergence of Humanistic Psychology ismainly caused by the drastic changes in the socio-cultural life. In this periodpeople were being replaced by machines at a large scale and their works becamemore specialized. As a result, people appeared were merely replaceable parts inthe big machine of society. The depersonalization spread to all spheres oflife.
In this circumstance the humanists sought to restore psychology to dealwith the whole life of people. They emphasized on the people’s innate capacityfor creativity and goodness. Their fundamental concern was the self-conceptsi.e., our mental portrait of ourselves, according to which we judge andinterpret our behaviour and experience. Freud’s Psychoanalysis comprehendedhuman being as motivated by the selfish and irrational id whereas HumanistPsychology with its positive vision states human beings are allowed to developfreely to some higher vision of their capabilities. The most influentialHumanistic psychologists who based their theories on the optimistic foundationare Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.
CarlRogers (1902-1987): The Actualizing Tendency Carl Rogers comprehend all behaviour as motivated by asingle overriding factor i.e., the actualizing tendency. This is the desire topreserve and enhance oneself.
This includes both the drive simply to stay alivei.e., by eating, keeping warm, and avoiding physical danger and the people’sdesire to test and fulfill their capabilities i.e., to expose themselves to newexperiences, to master new skills, to quit boring jobs and find more excitingones etc. This process of fulfilling one’s potential is calledself-actualization.
Our image of ourselves is the self-concept. Rogers statethat the degree of self-actualization that we achieve depends on the degree ofcongruence between the self and the organism.121.2.
2. Abraham Maslow(1908-1970): The Hierarchy of NeedsJust like Rogers, Abraham Maslow states that human beingsare basically good and all their behaviour develop from their drive towardself-actualization. He provides the concept of the hierarchy of needs, whichincludes a series of needs that need to be fulfilled in process of achievingself-actualization. He proposed five levels of needs in which each level shouldbe fulfilled before presiding to next level.13 Maslow’shierarchy is described as follows: 1. Physiologicalneeds, such as needs for food, sleep and air. 2.
Safety,or the needs for security and protection, especially those that emerge fromsocial or political instability. 3. Belongingand love including, the needs of deficiency and selfish taking instead ofgiving, and unselfish love that is based upon growth rather than deficiency.
4. Needsfor self-esteem, self-respect, and healthy, positive feelings derived fromadmiration. 5.
And”being” needs concerning creative self-growth, engendered from fulfillment ofpotential and meaning in life. 14 Thisself-actualization tendency in the modern psychology is also a cause for theemergence of new age movements. Most of the new age leaders are influenced bythis kind of psychologies. 1 JobKozhamthadam ed., Modern Science,Religion and the Quest for Unity, Pune, ASSR Publication, 2005, 3.
2 Cf. JobKozhamthadam ed., Religious Phenomena ina World of Science, Pune, ASSR Publication, 2004, 62-63.3 Cf. JobKozhamthadam ed., Modern Science,Religion and the Quest for Unity, Pune, ASSR Publication, 2005, 3.
4 Cf. JobKozhamthadam ed., Science and Religion inDialogue: Challenges and Opportunities, Pune, ASSR Publication, 2002, 25.5 Cf.
JobKozhamthadam ed., Science and Religion inDialogue: Challenges and Opportunities, Pune, ASSR Publication, 2002,26-27.6 Cf. JobKozhamthadam ed., Science and Religion inDialogue: Challenges and Opportunities, Pune, ASSR Publication, 2002,6-7.7 Cf. JobKozhamthadam ed.
, Science and Religion inDialogue: Challenges and Opportunities, Pune, ASSR Publication, 2002,8-9.8 Cf. JobKozhamthadam ed.
, Modern Science,Religion and the Quest for Unity, Pune, ASSR Publication, 2005,10-11.9 Job Kozhamthadam ed., ModernScience, Religion and the Quest for Unity, Pune, ASSR Publication, 2005,11.10 Cf. JobKozhamthadam ed., Modern Science,Religion and the Quest for Unity, Pune, ASSR Publication, 2005, 10-11.11 Cf. www.
self-realization.com/humanistic-psychology (accessed on14-07-17)12 Cf. www.en.wikipedia.org/humanistic_psychology (accessed on14-07-17)13 Cf. www.self-realization.
com/humanistic-psychology (accessed on 14-07-17)14 Cf. www.en.wikipedia.org/humanistic_psychology (accessed on14-07-17)