Air pollution is a major cause of disease and death in large cities, which can be prevented. Despite improvements to enhance air quality through the years, the San Joaquin Valley does not meet the requirements of federal and state health ozone levels and particulate pollutants. Ozone is particularly a problem during the summer because high temperatures “cook” chemicals with sunlight to produce smog. Particles, meanwhile, represent a problem during the fall and winter season, when the increase in vehicle emissions and investing layers prevent the spread of these contaminants. Contaminant particles with a size of 10 microns or less (PM10) are a mixture of soot, chemicals, dust, salt, dirt, metals, smoke and toxins. PM10 are very small, about one-seventh the width of a human hair. Although they are micro size, they are dangerous as they can penetrate the body’s natural defenses and concentrate on the depth of the lungs. Exposure to high concentrations of these particles can cause heart attacks, increase the risk of lung cancer, worsening conditions such as asthma and bronchitis, and reduce the function of the lungs. PM10 also include the group of particles known as PM2.5 refined. The sources of air pollution and related poor health are in transportation, power generation, home, for example, and vary between cities and regions. Effective interventions can reduce air pollution related diseases and produce health benefits, example, sustainable transport, energy-efficient buildings and innovative energy generation. San Joaquin Valley needs to improve its air quality sooner than people think, the diminishing air quality is the combined effect of multiple factors. The valley’s residential population is increasing rapidly because of increase prices in coastal regions. The costal county of Los Angles only saw a 0.5% annual increase in population from 2000-2015 while Fresno County saw an increase of 1% double that of a large city. (Crane et al, 2017). Consequently, the higher population means higher use of automobile, more agriculture and new business that produce harmful substances like ozone, PM and ozone precursors. Now that the population is higher in the valley, there bad air quality concerns the health of millions. It is, therefore, essential to increase the air quality so that less people are harmed. The most polluted cities, as ranked, in the nation are cities that lie in the San Joaquin Valley. In fact, Fresno was ranked as the most polluted city in the nation by the American Lung Association from their air quality reports based on Air pollution data from 2012 to 2014. This finding also put Fresno as the number one polluted cities for short-term PM pollution. The problem of air pollution is a protuberant problem in the San Joaquin Valley, however in the recent years there has been an observable degrade in the air quality due to the long days throughout the year making the area limp in maintaining standard air quality. Daily ozone pollution is shown by Figure 1 from the air quality report published on 2016 that used data collected between 2012-2014 by the American lung Association. According to the figure, San Joaquin valley, Fresno country and Southern California receive the least possible grade on the grading scale. This means air pollution is a grave concern that has been affecting the valley and its population for the past years. American lung society alone doesn’t rank Fresno and San Joaquin Valley the most polluted cities in the nation. However, a similar study by National geography from 2013-2015 on ozone and particle pollution ranks the cities in the San Joaquin Valley in the top 5 most polluted cities. The crippling air quality of San Joaquin Valley is affecting the millions of people in this area, even though drastic measures are taken to resolve this problem. The air quality is directly related to the increasing population, agriculture, transport, growing industry etc. The slow increase in global temperatures are also to blame, causing hotter summers, wild fires and droughts in this region. The worsening air quality of San Joaquin Valley is directly connected to emissions. The air quality of San Joaquin Valley is continuously failing to stay up to the Californian air quality standards due to the buildup of air pollutants mainly from agriculture, industry etc. This accumulation is mainly made up of very damaging PM2.5 (particulate matter 2.5), which is a mixture of “solids or liquids such as dust, fly ash, soot, smoke, aerosols, fumes, mists and condensing vapors” (Particulate Matter, n.d) that reacts to form ozone precursors such as “SOx, NOx, VOCs, and ammonia” (Particulate Matter, n.d) up in the atmosphere. These per courses are very common in the San Joaquin Valley, which make is very hard for the are to control the air quality. Figure 2 shows the annual VOC and NOx emissions from 2016. The highest contributer to the NOx in the San Joaquin Valley is heavy duty diesel trucks contributing an astonishing 43% of the total NOx emission. Overall the transportaion division has contribute the most towards NOx emssion at 78% of the total NOx emissions. The high volume of transport is required because of the booming industiers in the San Joaquin Valley which is the major contributer to the air pollution which gives rise to health problems to the people in the valley. The transpotaion’s major air pollution comes from the exaust fumes which is the main sourse of PM2.5 in the San Joaquin Valley. PM2.5 are tiny particulates that are smaller than the diamter of a human hair, which easily gets traped in the respiratory system when inhaled, causing “asthma, respiratory inflammation, jeopardizes lung functions and even promotes cancers” (Xing, et al. 2016). Even though PM2.5 is the most harmful, PM’s can vary in size, conformation and dispersal for different type of PM there can be adverse health effects. (Ngo, et al. 2010) Particulates that range from 2.5 microns to 10 microns cause health and cardiovascular complications in the elderly, increasing mortality. (Ostro et al. 2006). San Joaquin valley’s asthma rate in children is the highest in the nation. The total population who had asthma in the Valley was 550,000 and out of that 105,000 were children. The anuale rate of premature death in San Joaquin Valley due to atshma roughly equals the total tolls of automobile deaths. (State of the Air 2017, n.d). The precence of VOCs in the atmosphere enhances the harmfulness of the Particulate matters to cause more health effects. Unlike PMs, VOCs are more contolable, because the main source for VOCs are stationary pollution. Main contributers of VOCs are homes, schools, bussiness and agriculture, while 29% of VOCs poluution is natural. The lowering of of VOC emissions can decrease the affect of air poluution which can help the valley to fall under federal standards. The most plausible way to approach this problem is to address the people, businesses and the federal government to bring stricter laws to reduce PM and VOCs emmmisons, which otherwise would result in harming consequences of air polution. Further, the valley’s bad air quality is deteriorated by the geographical location and the weather. The physical location of the valley makes the area prone to elevated temperatures during the summer, often causing wild fires, hazards and long droughts. The San Joaquin Valley is a basin that is formed by the three surrounding mountains, which trapes air inside the basin, making it hard for air currents to circulate and thus causes the accumulation of air pollutants. The air particulates that are trapped lead to a thermal inversion forming a warm air layer which further intensifies the trapping effect (Berg, 2011). The geographical location of the valley is one of the factors that cannot be simply changed, but alternate methods of regulating emissions should be put in place to reduce the effects. Although the valley is no longer considered to be in a drought, the effects of it from three years ago still affect the area. During the drought, the accumulation of particulate matters increased substantially which combined with the lack of rain, put a halt to the natural elimination of PM (Caiola, 2015). Although the geographical disadvantages cannot be changed, it should be considered when planning to reduce the effects of air pollution in the valley. Agriculture is a major contributor to air pollution in San Joaquin Valley, but because of the thermal inversion (Berg, 2011) and trapping of bad air in the atmosphere the crop yield in cities like Fresno are dropping drastically causing an economical downfall. The effect of air pollution on agriculture reduced about 30% of crop yield in the San Joaquin Valley (Lin. 2013; Hall et al. 1992). The years of drought and air pollution had a huge burden on the economy of California, San Joaquin Valley alone contributing 70% to the total crop revenue loss in 2014. These affects the nation because a large number of nuts, fruits and grapes come from the San Joaquin Valley (Zelezny et al 2015). The economical impacts of the air pollution Is determined using by the yearly precipitation, higher the precipitation in inches the lower the annual revenue loss. With annual precipitation low as 2 inches, the revenue loss can rack up to $3.4 billion (Zelezny et al 2015). These contributing factors need to be considered when considering steps to improve Fresno’s bad air quality. Car emissions, for example, need to be reduced. There also needs to be stricter laws and less permits in agricultural sectors to reduce local pollution caused by corporations. The Air Resource Board, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District and Environmental Protection Agency are all putting efforts to improve air quality. These efforts include offering incentives and reducing car emissions to lessen pollutants. However, because there are several factors that contribute to the current quality of air, it is challenging to see a significant improvement. Nonetheless, continuous efforts to combat and reduce pollution will help not only residents in the valley, but also communities in other regions of the world where methods can be emulated.