Reverse Osmosis, a
water treatment method traditionally known for removing salt from seawater, is
also used to purify drinking water by forcing untreated water molecules through
a semipermeable membrane or filter. The membrane blocks contaminants and the
impurities are subsequently expelled from the environment. The result is pure,
clean drinking water.
Reverse Osmosis Work?
applied to saline water to force the pure water molecules through a semi
permeable membrane. The majority of dissolve salts, organic material, bacteria
and suspended solids are unable to physically pass through the membrane and are
discharged from the system in the rejected brine. The pure water is then ready
for use without further treatment.
There have been
four types of module designs made for reverse osmosis, plate and frame large
tubes, spiral wound and hollow fine fiber.
The arrangement of
the membrane is important so that the water coming in under high pressure can
pass through the membrane surface while the treated water is collected from
of the wastewater stream is required, because the Osmosis unit can be damaged
by colloidal matter in the feed stream. Also, the removal of iron and manganese
is so matinées necessary to decrease scaling potential and pH must be
controlled between 4.0 to 7.5 for the same reason.
In Rochem RO
system effluent is taken from secondary clarifier outlet. First effluent enters
into sand filter, particles >50 micrometer cannot pass through the sand
filter. After this step effluent enter in to the cartridge filter particles
>10 micrometer cannot pass by cartridge filter. Then the effluent enters
into the disk modular. The plate membrane at pressure compensation. The plate
covers the membrane cushion without puttingpressurein the membrane surface. The
water is slide with O ring from the pure water manifold in the center of the
Plate Tube Module System:
Membrane – Module System
The patented PT
Membrane Module is a mode design for molecular separation, desalination and
purification of liquids. It can operate effectively and economically at
increased turbidity and Slit Density index levels for ultrafiltration and
The plate membrane
stack is assembled on the center tension rod with metal end flanges.
The module stack
is covered in an open, standard 8 inch pipe. The feed water is sealed by a
pressure flange seal. The pressure vessel design allows for an easy alteration
of module length and tube materials. The special modular construction
facilities inspection or changing of membrane in a quick and easy manner. This
is further facilitated by light weight construction and materials.
stack operates at pressure compaction (feed to brine).The special hydraulic
characteristics ensure safe operation at each pressure stage and at high
result in a high flow velocity across the membranes at minimum feed flow. The
open feed channel over the membrane surfaces ensures optimal membrane cleaning
from fouling deposits.
hydraulic plate is manufactured from the material ABS. Different materials are
available for special feed quality.
III Observation tables:
Conventational analysis of sample collected from
feed, permeate and reject for testing of Total nitrogen and Ammonical Nitrogen.
Data for Reverse Osmosis process by the use of Disk Module process is shown as
per Table 3 and there graphical representation is shown in Figure 5,6 and7.
Table 3: Waste water characteristics from Reverse
Ammonical Nitrogen (mg/L)