Until 1776, over half of the population came from the British Isles (US colonial settlement period). They were responsible for promoting many of the new nation’s political, social, constitutional and religious Institutions. After this period and American independence from Britain, north-western Europe supplied over two-thirds of episodic US immigration. In total, some 60 million immigrants entered between 1820-2000. Although the USA has managed to Integrate Its Immigrants successfully there exists discrimination and Intolerant natives (discrimination towards newcomers by the existing population). Today the largest minority group is Latino. > Political-legal Culture Its nature has been largely shaped by: The central place of law and the constitution In American life The restrictions that the constitution places upon politics The fact that many American believe in minimal government The need to produce consensual (widely agreed) national politics (consequence of pluralism -> the believe that people of different races, cultures etc can live together) American politics tends to be more concerned with local, state interests than national matters. Recently political participation has creased (low turnout voters for elections).
Economic Culture The US economic and social cultures are both materialistic/practical and idealistic/ abstract. Americans are very competitive. They have been historically very skeptical of Big Business as well as Big Government. A historical dilemma has been how to balance the need for national unity with the existence of ethnic diversity. In the sass ethnic differences and Issues seemed to be declining, but revived In the sass. From the late sass through the sass, there has been a reaction against liberal policies and affirmative action programmers for minority groups, which allegedly discriminate in the latter’s favor in e. . Education/ work. The tension is between absolute pluralism (multiculturalism where the interests of an ethnic group are equally valid to any other and should be supported) and acceptance AT pluralism unaware a prevailing marmoreal American Identity. Americans have historically tried to construct a sense of an overarching national identity and unity by binding the ethnically diverse population to central images or symbols of ‘Americanizes’ (e. G. The national flag and its pledge of allegiance, declaration of independence, the ‘star spangled banner’ and the constitution) 4th of July: independence day.
Official US holiday which commemorates the day in 1776 when the continental congress sitting in Independence Hall Philadelphia gave its approval to the declaration of independence from Britain. Features of US life: Distrust of Big Business/Government, desire to be free Communality, voluntary activities, charitable organizations, group endeavors One cannot define a single and simple set of traits which are shared by all Americans. Nevertheless, the 3 major cultures and various subcultures have produced a composite Americanizes ND distinctive US image, which have influenced an international or globalizes culture.
The top-5 problems facing the USA according to the population (2004): 1 . Education 2. The economy 3. Terrorism 4. Health Care 5. The situation in Iraq In terms of ethnic composition of the country, attitudes to national identity and immigration appear to be shifting: more people describe their roots and ethnic background as simply ‘US/American’. Newer immigrants however retain stronger ancestral ties. Many Americans may generally appear to believe in the inherent validity of American values, but continue to question what is meant by these values, owe consensual they are and, consequently, what is means to be American.
Populism: the believe of representing the ‘ordinary people Utopianism: an imaginary, ideal civilization, which may range from a city to a world, and may be regarded as possible in the future, although not currently existent. Egalitarianism: believe that everyone is equal and should have equal rights Anti-static: having strong objections against the state Chapter 2 The country Natural Resources The Atlantic Plain is the country first land formation, a coastal lowland stretching from New England to the middle of Texas.
Most important natural wealth is found along and in the Gulf (crude-oil and natural-gas reserves are located here). Inland from the Atlantic Plain, the land rises to the Piedmont, a gently rolling fertile plateau. The Piedmont rises to the Appalachians, much-eroded mountains from Canada to Alabama that separate the Eastern Seaboard from the interior. West of the Appalachian analyses Lies ten central Lowland (aka ten matrons Dressmaker), a vast area stretching from New York state to Central Texas and north to Canada. Its natural resources are its soil and fossil fuels.
The Great Plains is a band of semi-arid (fairly dry) territory almost 500 miles wide between Canada and Mexico. From the western edge of the Great Plains to the Pacific Coast, a third of the continental US consists of the Cordillera mountain chains (The Rockies and the pacific ranges). Near the Southern Rockies western slopes is the Colorado Plateau, a maze of canyons and mesas (e. G. The Grand Canyon). Surrounding the plateau is the desert south-west. The Western arm of the Cordillera consists of two lines of mountains with a series of valleys between them.
All these valleys are blessed with rich soils. The mountains between the valleys and the coast include major earthquake zones (e. G. The San Andrea Fault). The natural riches of Hawaii are vegetable rather than mineral. Coastlines and river systems The Great Eastern Water systems are those that drain the Central Lowland: The Mississippi and the Great Lakes-SST Lawrence system. The biggest group of freshwater lakes in the world, the Great Lakes carry more shipping than any other inland lake group.
On the west-coast, limited rainfall and scant mountain run-off dry up all but three river systems, the Columbia, the Colorado and the San Joaquin-Sacramento, fore they reach the sea. -> Conservation, recreational areas and environmental protection Conservation of natural beauty and resources through national parks gained acceptance in the late sass. Yellowstone park was in 1872 the first nature preserve to be put under federal control. The National Park Service was established in 1916 by congress, it now administers over 200 different sites.
In 1970, an independent regulatory body, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) took on the national government’s responsibility for monitoring and protecting America’s natural environment. The Clean Air Act gave the EPA the duty of identifying and reducing airborne pollutants. Arctic and tropical climates are limited to high mountain-tops, inland Alaska, Hawaii and South Florida. The middle latitudes are known for wide variations in temperature and rainfall. In winter, dry frigid Canadian air moves south, spreading cold weather to the plains and lowlands and causing storms at its southern edge.
Along the pacific, seasonal changes follow another pattern (relatively warm winters, and hot summers). Native-American cultural regions In the mid-1 sass, many distinct Native-American cultures existed. The woodland eastern half of the country were areas known as the north and south-eastern ‘maize regions’, where a variety of native cultures depended on hunting, fishing, farming and gathering. The Native-American cultural area in the prairies and Great Plains is known as the plains or bison region. People here depended on river-bank farming, small-game hunting and gathering.
The groups transformed by the arrival of the horse (Cheyenne, Dakota) are among the best-known of Native-Americans largely Decease AT tenet Tierce resistance to went settlement on tenet until grounds. I en Native-American cultural region called the south-west once encompassed a diversity of native cultures, nomadic hunters and gatherers as well as farmers, but most of its people relied on advanced forms of irrigated agriculture. The California- intermittent cultural area included the barren territory around the Colorado plateau and most of California. Here live nomadic hunters and gatherers.
The various Intuit groups are the native peoples of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. The coastal peoples are skilled sea-hunters, while the inland cultures are based on hunting big game. Indigenous Hawaiian gathered food from the tropical forests, terraced mountain-sides and irrigated their fields to grow crops. They also build semicircular fish ponds along the sea-shore. Group possession and communal use of land were most common. Cultural regions in the contemporary USA The North-East Known as densely populated, highly urban and suffering from becoming post- industrial.
Still the nations economic and cultural centre. Americans trace several aspects of the nation’s traditional core culture to Southern New England: – American exceptionalness (the believe to have as special mission and ability to set a good example to the rest of the world) – Puritan work ethic (the faith that hard work and good morals are rewarded in this world and the next) The north-east has a concentration of quality institutions of higher education and research. The northern zone of the region has developed a lucrative industry providing summer cottages and second homes for people who want to escape east-coast cities.
The original vision of America as a pluralistic mix of religions, ethnic groups and races developed here. The South This region includes the 1 1 states from Virginia to Texas that formed the confederacy during the Civil War. The south has two sub regions: – the lowland south on the coastal plain – the upland south in the Piedmont, southern Appalachians and Ozarks The first colonists here were Englishmen (they came for the gold and silver, but didn’t find it). The climate and soil did however prove suitable for growing and exporting cash crops (tobacco/cotton), that required much labor but offered huge profits.
Indentured servants: people who sold themselves into virtual slavery for four to seven years to pay for their passage to North-America. African slavery existed in all the American colonies, but became the main source of workers only in the plantation out. As late as the sass, a proposal to end slavery failed by one only one vote in the Virginia legislature. It did end with the Civil War, but still cotton remained the region’s main cash crop and therefore most African American remained dependent on their former masters for work and a place to live.
Nowadays agriculture is still important but its products are much more varied. Southerners as a whole remain less educated, more religious, more conservative and more predominantly old-stock The Mid-West American. Includes the states bordering the Great Lakes and two tiers of states west of the Multiples river Trot Mollusk Ana Kansas Norton to Canada. I en Great Lakes states are called the industrial mid-west. The two western tiers of states are called the agricultural mid-west. In recent decades mid-western industrial cities have made great strides towards economic and environmental recovery.
Chicago remains the region’s premier city. Mid-western cities and universities were especially prominent in the opposition to the Vietnam War. The West It is made up of three parts: the south-west, the mountain states and the pacific coast. – The South west consists of New Mexico, Arizona and parts of surrounding tastes with a similar climate and culture. Cattle and sheep-ranching are important for the economy. The federal government is the largest landowner in the South-West. – The Mountain states economy is clearly dominated by government (e. G. It owns 4/5 of Nevada, 2/3 of Utah).
The population density is low but appears to be growing so rapidly that some westerners think in-migration and development are nearing their acceptable limits. Mining, continues to be an economic mainstay. – The USA gained sovereignty over the Pacific coast area in the sass. The 1849 ‘Gold Rush’ attracted sizeable populations. The San Francisco area was the first to experience rapid development because it was the port of entry for the Gold Rush ‘Forty-Miners’. Los Angles has experienced rapid population growth ever since it became the terminus of a transcontinental railroad in 1885.
Resource and land-management are major issues in Hawaii and Alaska, as they are in the continental west. Today, the people are highly urban and have a make-up that is unique in the nation. The federal, state and Native-American tribal governments own over 99% of Alaska. Until it won statehood in 1959, settlers and natives subsisted primarily through fishing, hunting ND lodging. During the sass/sass it received a wave of immigration (people who wanted to escape the congestion and pollution in the other states). The state has the highest unemployment rate.
Americans give relatively low priority to the country pollution problems, ranking crime, health care, drug abuse, energy shortage and hunger and homelessness as more serious worries. Glacial moraine: Chapter 3 The people: settlement and immigration The US is a nation of nations. Over the centuries, the view that the nature of the nation should be a composite of many national backgrounds, races and cultures aimed popular acceptance, however there is disagreement over the nature of the process and what the ultimate goal should be: the assimilation of newcomers or the acceptance of a permanently pluralistic society.
The long history of mutual incomprehension and conflict between Native Americans and European explorers began in the late sass. Epidemics annihilated entire native cultures. The potato played a key role in the great population growth that brought millions of European immigrants to the USA in the sass. Native Americans were pantheists: the believe that the divine is in all things and that human beings were no ore Important than any toner part AT ten world Europeans on ten toner nana, viewed humans as the highest creation of a God who all things fit a system called the Great Chain of Being.
The main conflict between the two cultures has always been landownership. -> The Founders The people who established the colonies are considered founders rather than immigrants because they created the customs, laws and institutions to which later arrivals (the first immigrants) had to adjust. The Spanish occupied coastal Florida, the south-west and California in the sass and sass. The English established their first armament settlement at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. Because of scarcity of plantation labor, in 1619 the first African Slaves were imported.
In the sass, Lord Baltimore established Maryland as a haven for Catholics. To escape religious oppression in England, The Pilgrims (a small group of radical separatists from the Church of England), founded the first northern English colonies in 1620 at Plymouth, MA. The Puritans (who wanted to purify the church rather than separate from it) established the much larger Massachusetts Bay colony in 1630. The founding of the Middle colonies (NY, NJ and Pennsylvania) was different: the earliest communities ere were Dutch and Swedish outposts of the fur trade that grew into colonies.
The Dutch maintained their culture in rural NY and NJ for over 200 years, and although the dominant culture in NY & NJ became English by the end of the sass, the English authorities continues the tolerant traditions of the Dutch in the city. The Pennsylvania founders were Quakers (members of the Society of Friends) -> The First Wave: colonial immigration 1680-1776 The reception that immigrants received varied according to location and the individual’s qualities. The largest group of immigrants were the Scots-Irish.
Most paid heir passage across the Atlantic by becoming indentured servants. SST Jean De Cry©voucher, an immigrant farmer from France, first stated in 1782 the idea that in America ‘individuals’ of all nations are melted into a new race of man -> The Melting Pot. The period’s 200. 000 German immigrants were the largest non-English speaking group in the colonies. They developed German speaking towns in order for there culture to survive. Benjamin Franklin expressed what many feared when he said they might “Germanium us instead of us Anglicizes them”.
The first wave of immigration transformed the demography of the colonies. By 1776 English dominance had creased from 4/5 to a bare majority (52%) of the population. The great diversity in country led Thomas Paine (a famous political agitator) to call the USA a ‘nation of nations’ -> The Salad Bowl. African American slaves composed 20% of the population. Most Native-American cultures had been forced inland to or beyond the Appalachians. -> The Second Wave: the ‘old’ immigrants’ 1820-1890 Between 1776 and the late sass, immigration slowed a bit.
The dominant Anglo- American culture and the passage of time weakened the old ethnic communities. Factors that strengthened immigration again after the sass were: Political unrest Religious persecution Economic push factors The ‘old immigrants’ were the northern and western Europeans. The industrial revolution and an international trade boom spread from Britain to the Continent and the USA during this period. Stage migration (moving first to the city and, after some years, from there to a foreign country) became common. Steamships and trains made migration abroad safer, faster and cheaper.
From the 60 million people who left their homelands between 1820 and 1930, 2/3 settled in the USA. During the ‘old immigration’ 15. 5 million people made America their home. Pull factors were: Unlimited supply of land and work. The newcomers settled everywhere, but mostly in the urban manufacturing centers of the north-east and the recently settled farmlands and frontier cities of the mid-west and pacific coast. Natives (the dislike of people and things foreign) plagued many old immigrants. The Irish suffered many forms of discrimination and were often stereotyped as dirty, lazy and drunken.
Anti- foreign agitation reached its first peak in the sass with the ‘Know nothing or American Party (they believed that the Irish but also all non-British immigrants heartened the precious heritage and proposed tripling the time needed to gain US citizenship and restricting immigrants’ voting rights. Internal divisions and the coming of the Civil War diffused (bettered) this natives movement. In 1882 the Chinese Exclusion Act ended Chinese immigration. -> The Third Wave: The ‘new immigrants 1890-1930 Around 1890 immigration from north-west Europe declined sharply, while arrivals from southern and eastern Europe rose.
Between 1890 and 1914, the volume of immigration also soared (increased), topping a million annually several times and equaling the 15. Million of the old immigrants in Just 24 years. To most Americans, the change mostly involved the feeling that the typical immigrant had become much less like them. Transportation improvements continues, increasing the flow of immigrants. Many new immigrants were ‘sojourners’, (birds-of-passage), who stayed only long enough to save money to buy land or a small business in the old country. 4/5 went where the Jobs were.
The size of new immigration and the altered Job market resulted in larger urban immigrant quarters then America had ever seen. Reformers established ‘settlement souses’ and charities to help immigrants adjust, worked to Americanize them and fought for better housing and parks. In 1909, Israel Ganglia’s play The Melting Pot popularized the idea that the diverse groups in the USA would eventually fuse many races and cultures through intermarriage and become a new people. An opposing view was cultural pluralism, the belief in a collection of cultures united by loyalty to the same political and civil ideals.
The founding fathers made the motto: ‘e pluralism ENUM’ (out of many one). Restriction or even regulation of immigration was slow to develop in the US. In 1891, federal government took responsibility for regulating immigration and the next year opened Ellis Island, the famous screening depot for immigrants in NY bay. The National Quota Acts represented the climax of a campaign Tort restriction Tanat conclave Its TLS result In 18/5 (Ethereal government Degas a piecemeal (very slow process in separate unconnected stages) listing of banned groups).
In 1921, Congress passed the first general limitation on immigration, the Emergency Quota Act, that drastically reduced the annual number of European newcomers to a third, and introduced nationality quotas. In 1924, the Asian Exclusion Act, ended all immigration from Asian nations, and a National Origins Quota Act reduced European nationality quotas to 2%. The Quota Acts did end the new immigration but immigration from the UK also dropped sharply. The depression of the sass put a stop to mass immigration.
Nazi and fascist regimes caused an enormous flow of refugees, 250. 000 of whom Congress admitted as non-quota immigrants under special laws. World War II and the Cold War caused several contrasting shifts in policy. The government imported temporary farm labor from Mexico under the ‘bracers’ program and lifted the ban on Chinese immigration. After the war, federal law provided for the entry of families formed by US service people abroad. Between 1948 and 1959, Cold War refugees also came. The total of non-quota immigrants for those years reached 750. 000.
In 1952, the Mascaras-Walter Act stated that race was no longer a reason for refusing someone an immigrant visa. Instead it started the so-called Brain-drain to the US by reserving the first 50% of visas for each country for people with needed skills. Pressure for an entirely new approach grew and the Immigration Act of 1965 replaced national origin quotas with hemispheric limits to annual immigration. A system of preferences set principles for selecting immigrants. The most important principle was reunifying families. The second principle continued the ‘brain-drain’. Refugees received the remaining visas.
Legislation made the national limit and preference system global in the sass. -> The Fourth Wave: 1965 to present The 1965 law ushered in the fourth wave of immigration, which rose to a peak in the late sass and produced the highest immigration totals in American history by the end of the decade (nearly 35 million between 1960 and 2002). At the peak, some 9. 5 million newcomers arrived. In 2002, % of the legally resident foreign-born in the US were Latino or Asian. The large majority of both legal and illegal immigrants are similar to those who arrived since the sass.
The nationalities and skin colors of most people in this wave are different and more various however, and they arrive in different ways and settle in different places. On the whole, the longer a particular group has been in the country, the more favorable is the public response. Racial attitudes however, appeared to be decisive in creating long-term low opinions of non-white ethnic groups. Large numbers of Asian immigrants in the 4th wave arrive with more capital and a higher level of education than most Latino. Those facts have led some media commentators to lump all Asian Americans together under the label of ‘model minority.
The government invented the word ‘Hispanics’ to put all Central and South American Spanish-speaking immigrants in a single category. The government responded to the ongoing illegal immigration Tate In 1986 Dye passing ten Immigration Retort Ana control Act (RICA). I en law attempted to minimize illegal immigration while expressing acceptance and giving rights to people already inside the US. Almost 3 million became legal immigrants through RICA. However, after first declining, the number of illegal rose again to between 9-11 million in a few years.
National policy became more liberal through the Immigration Act of 1990. It raised the annual total of immigrant visas, the limit for individual nations and the number of asylum seekers who could remain in the USA. Since 1990, sharp differences in public attitudes to immigration have been evident. The Welfare Reform Laws of 1996 strengthened border controls against illegal immigration, made it easier to deport ‘suspicious’ visitors and immigrants, required Emily in the US to take more responsibility for keeping newcomers off the welfare roles, and denied legal immigrants federal welfare benefits.
In 2001, president Bush welcomed a proposal from the president of Mexico for a new bracers worker program and amnesty law. The Patriot Act of 2002 developed new biometric identity checks to regulate entry to the country, conducted intensified surveillance of the foreign-born and called in immigrants for questioning and possible detention or deportation. In recent polls, most of the country economic, political and cultural elites accepted high levels of legal and illegal immigration.
The general public on the other hand, increasingly linked immigration to concerns about national security, population growth, environmental problems and cultural differences. Chapter 4 The people: women and minorities Defining what equality means has proved difficult: most Americans have supported equality of opportunity (and equal chance to develop one’s possibilities and to be rewarded for them) but not equality of results (an evening-out of economic, social and political power).
Women today experience unequal treatment: they are prescribed roles and do not org in the most prestigious occupations, earn as much money or enjoy positions of equal social status as often as men. Until the mid-sass, a woman experienced a ‘civil death’ upon marriage, which meant she ceased to exist legally except through her spouse. She had no right to own property, control her wages of sign contracts. Women were among the first factory workers when the industrial revolution began (earnings/4 of men’s wages). From its beginning they Joined the labor movement. He 19th century The middle and upper-class white women produced most of the century female reformers. Among these women were also the founders of famous women’s colleges. In 1848, 2 abolitionists, Lucrative Motto and Elizabeth Caddy Stanton, led the first women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, NY. The convention’s ‘Declaration of Sentiments’ called for property and divorce rights, educational and employment opportunities and the vote. Before the Civil War, Susan B. Anthony led successful efforts to improve women’s status.
Feminists Joined the successful campaign for the constitutional abolition of slavery through the 13th amendment, but the movement split in two when it became clear that only African-American men were offered the o e Wyoming territory granted Tamale suffrage In Out AT 1 / states Tanat considered women’s suffrage between 1870 and 1910, only 3 approved it. Several other states gave women voting rights limited to municipal or school issues and elections. The 20th century The ratification of the 19th amendment granted women the right to vote in all elections in 1920.
Female social reformers who demanded protective measures, successfully lobbied for laws limiting women’s working hours and occupational choices to protect their safety and health. Other feminists insisted that this approach assumed that women are the weaker sex. These activists proposed another constitutional change as early 1923, the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), to eliminate the remaining legal inequalities between men and women. The turning point in women’s employment came after HOI: by 1970 almost 50% had Jobs and a large percentage were getting a higher education.
The women’s movement successfully lobbied for the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which was the first such legislation to explicitly ban discrimination based on sex as well as on race. In 1973 the Supreme Court legalized abortion through the Roe vs.. Wade Case. In the 1978 Regents vs.. Bake Case he court struck down a policy of using numerical quotas for affirmative action, but it still supports flexible programmers that encourage companies and institutions to actively recruit women and minorities.
A major initiative for women’s rights in the 20th century, that ultimately failed, was the Equal Rights Amendment to the US constitution (ERA) (stating that neither the states or federal government could limit a person’s rights on the basis of sex). In 1972 Congress passed the ERA with little opposition. However, after many states passed it in the early sass, support lagged and the ERA fell 3 states short of ratification in 1982. NOW: the National Organization for Women was founded by a group of older, moderate women in 1966). Today, court action has reduced the legal hindrances to equality between the sexes.
Judicial approval of state laws granting unpaid maternity leaves in the late sass less more private employers and public authorities to institute maternity leaves programmers. In the sass, over half of all bachelor’s degrees were awarded to women, who now earned higher degrees more often as well. But the finalization of poverty continued to increase (earning were still only 2/3 of men’s in 2003). Native Americans It’s history is complex but has 2 primary aspects: . The behavior and governmental policy of white people towards first Americans’ 2. He responses these actions provoked. British settlers sought land, rather than trading partners or mineral riches. Relations between the natives and the English were marked by distrust, resentment and disastrous wars. First was a short period of relative peace, then conflicts escalated into full-scale war. In the sass and sass, the natives tried, by war, to expel the intruders. During the 3rd phase of mass retaliation (action against someone who has done something bad to you), the natives were defeated military. During the final