The reasons why people Coplay are various, but generally revolve around appreciation for the ‘OFF narrators, wanly tales Into ten extensive Tan culture AT enamel. Sprayers may Like ten attitude of the character, their backstops, or physical looks; perhaps they identify with the character in some way’ (2007:45). Within the fan community, they are different types of fan audiences and enthusiasts, Atkins, J describes them as; consumer-fan-cultists, enthusiasts and petty producers.

He explains that fans as audience members obsess about stars or particular media programmer, these stars or media programmer are seeded out through the use of heavy media such as news papers, news programmer, Newsweek magazines etc. Furthermore that it is possible for an audience member to become a cultist rather than a fan, as they seek out their star programmer through heavy use of specialized media which focuses solely on a particular individual or programmer, e. G. A newsletters or visiting the official website of their primary focus or interest.

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Finally there are two groups which make’s up the enthusiasts, that is; the matures and the professionals. According to Atkins, J (2005) “The matures take great interest in the activity and make it part of their lives. The professionals are experts in the field and come petty producers as they contribute to the media or literature on the activity” (MOM 47). Placing anima fans in contexts with the SSP breakdown of types of fans I. E. Fan cultist, enthusiasts; matures and professionals, anima fans can be segmented within these types of fan audiences.

The Mature An anima fan that watches anima or reads magna and at times partake in online chat simply for its pleasure or as a way of escapism can be labeled an mature. The Professional An anima professional may be seen as an individual who not only watches anima, dads magna, participates in online activities such as, anima web chats, discussions, forums, post blobs, create fan pages or fan videos etc, anima professionals go beyond that, anima professionals are those who are able to cater for other anima fans for example creating fan subs, which are usually done free of charge, Bryce.

M, Barber. C, Kelly. M, Kumar. S, and Plumb. A (2009) quoting (Nitwit, 1995; Norris, 2005) “Fans of magna and anima are part of an interactive cross-cultural communication process. Their knowledge is specialized and their membership is privileged, but they also often work towards distributing this subculture to a wider audience. Their key role in the distribution process is through translation: fans subtitle (or even dub) anima and scan translated versions of magna for those who cannot understand the Japanese original” (accessed 22/02/2010).

An anima pro is an enthusiast and a petty producer performing as a form of interest, leisure and way of life. The Cultist Enamel cultists can De seen as an extreme version AT an enamel pro. Enamel cultists or ‘TAKE as referred to by anima fans, is then name given to a person or people obsessed with anima, magna and video games. The word ‘TAKE in Japan has very negative connotations, it is a term which implies an unhealthy possessiveness with a hobby and is often associated with weirdness and creepiness, Bucking, D and Soften, G.

J, (2004) “Taxi is identified as an take – a member of the tribe of young Japanese men who cut themselves off from society and immerse themselves in the virtual worlds of computer games or comic books” (2004:17-18). What is interesting about these cases is that, many of these activities are carried out using the same alternative media, e. G. Forums, fan pages, blobs, etc, to form groups, links, and to issues, protest, campaign, share ideas, stories, interests and to communicate with friends or clans.

Bryce. M, Barber. C, Kelly. M, Kumar. S, and Plumb. A (2009) “Anima and magna fantod is incredibly active in other ways on the internet: there is an enormous number of news and information sites, fan sites, forums, magna- and anima-style online games, chat rooms, electronic mailing lists and interactive chat sites which use movable avatars inspired by magna and anima, for example Gaga Online.

Moreover, consumers do not simply want to view magna and anima, they also want to create them” (accessed 22/02/2010). Because diffusion is entwined with the simple and the mass, all of the activities explained above also falls into the mass performance, particularly that of anima fans participating on online activities. Furthermore in Japan anima is more prominent than it is in the Western world, attributes of anima are being incorporated into the everyday norm for young Japanese teenagers.

For many Japanese people anima has become a source of financial income, Allison, A (2004) “Others suggest that Japan’s future in influencing, even leading, global culture, will come through three industries video games, anima (animation), and magna (comic books)” (2004:36). Although the influence of anima may be spreading across different parts of the world, anima fantod differs in different cultures. Westernizes anima differs from Eastern Asian anima. The East anima plays on the ideology of ‘cuteness’ whilst the Western world I. E.

America plays on the notion of ‘coolness’, Buckish, K (2004) “Cute is the term most often used to describe the growing appeal of Japanese fashion, pop idols, and animated characters in Asian region. “Cute” characters from Japan such as Hello Kitty, Chivalrous, and Toreador are much popular in East and Southern Asian countries than they are in the United States and Europe, whereas “cool” American cartoons such as The Simpson and South Park, which are popular in North America and Europe, are not very popular in East Asia” (2004:70).

So therefore even though anima fantod is performed as a mass, anima fantod differs in different parts of the world because of cultural differences. Though Firebombed and Longhorn’s SSP research theory demonstrates how everyday life audiences interact with media and create performance in their daily outline, I en SSP never Decodes problematic when applying tense perspectives to anima subcultures that predominantly live in a virtual reality world. This is because the SSP downplays the notion of the RIP, which is power, ideology and resistance, an element that is present within the online anima community.

The online community is a world where interaction, communication and behavior are different to when people meet physically. And this is because of identity, as online one can have as many multiple personalities as he or she chooses. The virtual world is not composed f matter as the real world, rather it is composed of ‘information’ an important factor when looking at how power and control in other words ‘Hierarchy is used within the anima communities and downplayed by the SSP. As previously discussed most anima fans participate in online activities as a form of entertainment, escapism, interests or hobby.

Many come online to watch or post videos, comment on posts, Join discussions, play games, or interact with either old and new friends or fans. Within such groups there are the usual or friends who regularly come online to interact with one another using the ‘Chat and go’ box revived by most anima websites. These individuals or groups of people address each other using nicknames and have profiles where more information regarding them can be found such as pictures, locations, sex, hobbies etc. However there are those called ‘ANIONS’, these are people who choose to have an anonymous identity online.

The anions can be found on many anima websites and can number any amount on any given chat and go boxes. The anions can be described as the villains within the online anima community, most importantly, they do not work as a clan or group, but command some great deal of power and control over other anima fans. Order of power and control in online anima communities Anions – are those who choose to remain anonymous online. Most anions have a tendency of behaving a certain way, usually in a way that annoys other anima fans. Anions have the power of terrorizing other anima fans by spamming, speaking obscenity, giving out spoilers or being racist.

An example of this can be seen in appendix one, two and three. Both images on appendixes one and two are from the same anima website and three from a different, and shows anima fans interacting in the Chattanooga box about anima on the left hand side. In appendix one between a roof conversation, an anon named Monomania quickly shoots down Yawn’s comment by stating “Sough char sucks! ” after Yawn had previously stated that they liked Sough char. In appendix two another anon named Monomania stated to one of his/ her fellow members “l want to beaker all over your face”, in other words carrying out a sexual activity on another member.

Because anions choose to remain anonymous they have the power to behave as they wish, therefore having power and in some cases control over other anima fans. The Usual/Everybody else – These are fan members who actively participate in inline activities and are well known or familiar with other members through participating in similar online activities. Though the anions might have an upper hand Day Delve anonymous Ana attending toner memoirs, ten usual teen to respond to this by ganging up against the anions, ignoring them or simply banning them.

By uniting against the anions they have to a certain degree the power to control the anions from spiraling out of control. The Newbie’s – The newbie’s can be looked upon as the weakest within these groups as they are new, and at times can be easily ignored by other members who are immersed in their own activities or conversations. I previously demonstrated how anima fans as subculture audiences and users of alternative media utilize the importance of power and control.

Through accessing, it is clear that anima fans as alternative media users are ruled by a hierarchy system where power and control are imposed on those who are weaker. Because the SSP downplays the RIP further areas within the anima subculture becomes problematic to access using the SSP, as there are different aspects of the anima world where power struggle within fans are more prominent. Therefore if anima subcultures or audiences of alternative media are to be assessed, issues of power and ideology must be brought to the foreground and not downplayed to the background.