Article Review

In order
to understand more about the study that will be conducted, the researcher have
gather more than 20 past research that related to the subject that will be studied.
This article review aim to highlight certain points or information from
collected theses and journals to provide more ideas and suggestion towards the
study. Any valuable information or method that the researcher found might be
useful for the study will be taking into consideration. The topic that the
researcher has come out is Credibility of Facebook and its impact towards
political behavior among young adults. There are several elements that will be
review regarding the topic which consists of social media, credibility of
social media, social media and political behavior.

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Social Media (Facebook)

Social
media have been a major tool for socializing, communicating, sharing of information
and many others. Social media is clearly an attractive and entertaining
platform for individuals to connect with other individual as well as for
self-interest. Social media is becoming a phenomenon which makes its one of the
most influential platform across the world (Njegomir, 2016).  Karsenty (2009) in her study instituted that people
use Facebook to gather either social information or any other miscellaneous
information.  Social media have also been
a major contribution towards political changes and situation. Social media provided
a platform for political purposes such as political discussion and information.
(Johnson and Kaye, 2010). Not only that, social media allow citizens to
directly attain political information, interact and communicate with the
politician and political parties (Rahmawati, 2014).  Social media in addition provide new means to
stimulate the user into politic and political mobilization (Keramat and Farooq,
2016). Thus, the researcher found that social media had somehow contribute and
provided medium for people in searching and engaging in political purpose based
on the articles reviewed.

Credibility
of social media

 

In the articles, mixed results have been found
out on the credibility of social media. Zulqarnain and Hassan (2014) discovered
that the credibility of social media have major impact towards user preference
in usage on both local and international politic news. And it has been found
that politically interested user tends to trust more on information disseminated
in the alternative media rather than traditional media (Fernandez-Planells, 2015).
Westerman, Spence and Der Heide (2013) in their study, examined the impact that
the recency of updates on a social media page had on user perception of
credibleness of the information as well as its association between cognitive
elaborations. They found that there is no significant relationship between
recent of updates and user perceived of credibility of the sources but there is
positive association between credibility and recent of updates on cognitive
elaboration. The findings proposed that recent of updates may not have a straight
impact on credibility of source. However, it is found that cognitive
elaboration is a connector in the relationship between recency of updates and
credibility. This somehow shows that user judge the credibility of information
based on user’s knowledge of information. In a study by Johnson and
Kaye (2014), social network sites have been answered as barely credible sources
of political information. Traditional media such as newspaper and television is more credible than
alternative media such as the online news and social networks sites (Kovacic,
Erjavec and Stular, 2009). A research by Ceron (2012) discovered that consumption of news from news websites is
positively associated with higher trust, while access to information available
on social media is linked with lower trust. Thus, it is vital for
further research to be conducted on the credibility of social media usage
especially in the use in political purpose. While a study by Nelson (2012)
found that news recommended by Facebook friends was not perceived as more
credible than news provided by online news sites which contrary to what have
been found from past researches. Thus, this shows that there are mixed results
in the aspect of credibleness of social media and its association with political
information used by the user which is why the need of this matter to be examine
to achieve clearer and more understanding regarding this matter of subject.

 

Social Media and its usage toward political behavior

 

A study
by Zuniga, Jung and Valenzuela (2012) aimed to test whether social media sites
can promote democratically desirable attitudes and behaviors when user uses it
to keep up with political news and public affairs. This study asserted that informational
use of social media pertained a significant and positive impact on individuals’
activities aimed at engaging in civic and political action. When trying to control social
media use for political activities with frequency of general social media use, the
frequency of general social media use influenced social media use for political
activities (Rahmawati, 2014). Those with higher frequency of general social
media use were also having higher frequency of social media use for political
activities. Individuals who use social media to be informed will also tend to
be involved in politics
(Zuniga, Molenyeux and Zheng, 2014). They argued that those who
use social media also for being in touch and interacting with others tend to
express themselves politically and likely to participate in politics both
online and offline. Social media
help to expose people to political information and it is asserted that young
people are actively involved in posting political campaign information on SNSs
though young men (Kamau, 2013) Next,
Saldana, McGregor and Zuniga (2015) conducted a comparison study on the use of
social media for news and its impact citizens’ political engagement in UK and
USA. People in UK are more actively engaged in online political participation
in social media use than people in USA. But yet, both countries showed
significant relationship between social media use and political participation.
It is found that social media have been used in both countries to follow
political groups and news organizations. However, there is also similar study that has been conducted which
differs in its result. According to Diesing (2013), she found that social
media is unlikely to become the solution of the declination of political
participation among young people as they regard social media is a platform for
social media and not for politics. Overall, most of the studies found that
social media contribute towards political behavior and it’s used for political
purposes. However, there is still study that the result found differently.
Thus, this shows valid gap for the researcher to conduct research that focused
in this particular subject.

 

Facebook and Political Behavior
among Young Adults

 

Zaheer (2016) found that there is
positive relationship between political activity and the length of time spent
on the use of Facebook. Particularly, it is explained that the students who
spend more time on Facebook are more involved to use it for political purposes.
Correspondingly, the students who frequently use Facebook for political
purposes are more active participants of online and offline political
activities. This study concluded that the more time a student spends being
politically active on Facebook, the more active he will be in pursuing
traditional political activities. Linda Allen (2016) performed a study on
social media and political efficacy among college students. She found that there
was a moderately strong positive relationship between Facebook usage and political efficacy. It is found that most of the
participant use Facebook to share and promote political issues and shared the
posts toward their friends. Social media especially Facebook has been
the most popular sites than twitter and argued that Facebook is making youth to
become politically active and they do take interest in politics related matters
which keep them involved in political issues on social media (Keramat and
Farooq, 2016). Social media
particularly Facebook has been used to
access national and international political news. (Molaei, 2016). While a study by Njegomir (2016) on
millennial usage of social media and political behavior found that millennial
despite been found very active in social media especially in Facebook and
politically interested, they do not posts or shared political content on social
media. And it is discovered that from the study social media does not have an
influence on millennial political behavior. From the articles, it has been
found that there were different outcomes of Facebook and political behavior
among young adults. Thus, it is crucial for further studies to be conducted
especially in the aspect of Facebook and its impact on political behavior as
Facebook is currently the most prominent social media platform which it is
believed to be main platform for political purposes among young adults.

 

Conclusion

 

The purpose of the article review
is to collect the findings of others similar studies that had been conducted as
it provided wider perspective for future studies. After conducted this reviews,
I believed that social media and politic in this recent times, are
well-depended toward each other. Social media especially, have become most
important medium for political purposes. Thus, there should be more research
within these two subjects to be conducted. This article review is important to
find out the results of previous studies conducted especially if there were
variations of the findings.  As for the
conclusion, it is very crucial to understand how social media especially Facebook
could bring impact toward political participation. We can see that based on the
past researches, social media have become decisive factor toward politic yet
there were still question arises on its credibleness. Thus, I hoped that this
article review could be the justification of the need of future studies to be
conducted and assist for my study.