1. Can you indentify the key factors that have led to Aravind’s success? * Efficient workforce: The organization always tried to hire hired employees who were related to the founder and who were passionate about the social cause of helping people. Monetary benefits were initially not a concern. * Strong Leadership: The organization was till then run by Dr. Venkataswamy. He had the requisite knowledge and skill in the field of ophthalmology and was motivated to serve the society in the same field. The organization which was started in the year 1976 with 20 beds is now one of the biggest of its kind in the year 1992.

* Operational efficiency: The hospital had a logical series of operations that made it possible for the staff to serve the large crowd that arrived at the hospital almost every day of the week. * Emphasis on research and development: Dr. Venkataswamy always encouraged his workforce to undertake research and publish papers in this area. He also tied up with universities in different countries to facilitate exchange of knowledge and ideas. * Targeting bottom of the pyramid: The organization realized that the rural areas contribute to around 67 percent of the total population hence the business model was more focused towards this segment.

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* Timely support from the sponsors 2. What has Dr. V. ‘s role been in all this? Ans. Dr. Venkataswamy has been the master mind behind the success of the organization. Most of the above mentioned factors of success was initiated or mastered by Dr. Venkataswamy. 3. How do you evaluate the quality of service at the free hospital? At the paying hospital? * Comparison of Free Hospital and main hospital: * Paying hospital was more organized in comparison against the free hospital. * Commonly Free hospital was more crowded than the Main hospital. * Three levels of pricing in the Main hospital.

* Similar operations followed. Conclusion: The services offered were similar. The striking difference was that the post and the pre operation services that includes facilities and infrastructure for the patients to rest and recover in the hospitals. Main hospital had beds for the patients to rest however in free hospital patients had to take shelters in temporary rooms on beds made of bamboo and chair cot. This was done in order to keep the costs under check. 4. What has been the role of Aravind’s clinical and support staff in all this? Are they dedicated and altruistic or do they have an ulterior motive?

* The employees hired always had the passion of serving the society as a whole. * However after some point of time Dr. Venkataswamy realized that it is important to take care of the needs of the employees. * The doctors were encouraged to undertake research and publish papers and thereby increasing their horizons about the subject. * The organization also trained nurses and employed them thereby giving them an opportunity to learn and earn. * Over a period of time when the business made profits doctors were paid at levels higher than that of doctors who were employed with the government.

5. Are there any weaknesses at all with the Aravind model of delivering eye care? The main problem in this business model is the Lack of infrastructural facilities and their ability to attract the rural population through rural camps. They have sponsors helping them but the large numbers of population are still not aware about it. 6. How are its satellite hospitals at Tirunelveli (best labeled T-Valley) and Theni doing? Tirunelveli Hospital: * Fundamental problems of Cash inflow to meet the cost of capital * Integration of features of free and paying hospital.

* It is supported by the main Hospital Theni Hospital: * It is a small facility. * It is not posing any sort of problem and supervision of Dr. Nam has been very criticalfor this facility. 7. How are its eye camps performing? * The eye camps are carried out with the help of local sponsors and NGO’s. * These bodies spread information in the village through newspapers, Public announcements, and advertisements. * The process starts one to three weeks in advance. * Some of the sponsors are Sathya Saibaba devotees association and Rajni Kanth appreciation club.

* The camps attracted a population of around 1 lakh however he was not happy with the fact that only 14 people out of the entire population were surgery cases. * Students and faculty from the college also act as volunteers in these camps. 8. How should Dr. V. expand the Aravind model to other parts of India, Asia, and Africa? Techniques that can be used: * Joint ventures with foreign partners * Franchising for expanding operations in India * Heavy expenditure on building awareness about the company * Aim urban areas to increase profits which can be used as inputs for establishing base in Rural India.