Association of self-regulation and resilience in Youth at Risk of Social


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beings rely on group life for their health, well-being, comfort, and other
positive outcomes. Being accepted into a social group is therefore an almost
indispensable goal of human striving. Obtaining such acceptance is, however, a
long and difficult task that may entail years of learning how to behave in
socially acceptable ways, cultivating good relationships, and building a
favorable reputation. To succeed people must have an effective capacity for
altering their behavior so as to conform to externally (socially) defined
standards. That capacity is often defined as self-regulation. It is therefore
plausible that one of the overarching purposes of self regulation is to secure
acceptance by others. If self-regulation exists partly for the sake of securing
and maintaining social acceptance, then social rejection may affect it. People
might respond to social exclusion or social rejection with either an
improvement or an impairment of self-regulation. Self-regulation is a highly adaptive, distinctively human trait that enables
people to override and alter their responses, including changing themselves so
as to live up to social and other standards.(Roy F. Baumeister M. G.;
Roy F. Baumeister M. G., 2006).Self-regulation is
the ability to monitor and control our own behavior, emotions, or thoughts,
altering them in accordance with the demands of the situation.(Cook, 2014). Self regulation is
the greater predictor of resilience. Using self regulation as a factor the
social excluded person can tolerate the negative situation and bounce back the
negative effect of the situation. The capacity to spring back, rebound,
successfully adapt in the face of adversity and develop social, academic and
vocational competence despite exposure to severe stress or simply to the stress
that is inherent in today’s world.(Henderson, 2003).

Social exclusion refers to keeping an individual or
group out of social situations.(Williams, 2005)This situation is
often created by academic failure, which happens when students fail to finish
compulsory secondary education and therefore do not meet the minimum
requirements for access to the job market.(Rew, 2003). Low academic
achievement is among the causes that can lead a person to be at risk of social exclusion:
it is a problem, because low performing students lack the basic educational
qualification necessary to enter the labor market. To prevent them from
entering to the labor market several programs were developed for them.There are
programs through regional and local governments, including the Initial
Vocational Qualification Programs (IVQPs), preventive programs aimed at the
educational or professional integration of young people, for students who have
not completed compulsory secondary education. These programs offer students another
opportunity to study.(Perkins, 2003).They provides work-frame
for vocational training and they are the last chance that students have to
obtain the Secondary Educationqualification.Moreover, specifically concerning
performance, (Zimmerman, 1990)earliest research
drew our attention to the importance of self-regulation as a major factor in
academic achievement. More recent research on resilience proposes the
self-regulation capacity as a protective factor in this respect (Benard, 2004). Self-regulation and
resilience have been identified as key factors that can determine success or
failure (Artuch-Garde, 2014).

As, there are a number of researches these were
conducted on self regulation, resilience and social exclusion.

The aim of the study was to study relationship
betweenself-regulationwith resilience, and that low-medium-high levels of
self-regulation would lead to similar levels of resilience. The participants
were 365students -aged 15 and 21. For the assessment, the Connor Davidson
ResilienceScale (CD-RISC) and the Short Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SSRQ)
were applied.Relationshipsbetween them were significant and positive. Learning
from mistakes (self-regulation) was a significant predictor of coping and
confidence, tenacity and adaptation, and tolerance to negative situations
(resilience). (Artuch-Garde R, 2017)

The aim of the study was to investigate the hypothesis
that social exclusion caused decrements in self-regulation. Six experiments
showed that being excluded or rejected caused decrements in self-regulation.
There were two manipulations of social exclusion (not chosen by a group and
negative feedback). Self-regulation was measured with four different procedures
(drinking a healthy but bad-tasting beverage, impulsively eating cookies,
persistence in the face of failure, and dichotic listening). Participants were
36 undergraduates (24 male) taking part in connection with their introductory
psychology class with the average age of 18.7 years.InExperiment 1,
participants who were led to anticipate a lonely future life were less able to make
themselves consume a healthy but bad-tasting beverage. In Experiment 2, other
participants were told that no one else in group wanted to work with them and
these participants later ate more cookies than other participants. In Experiment
3, excluded participants quit sooner on a frustrating task. In Experiments 4–6,
exclusion led to impairment of attention regulation as measured with a dichotic
listening task. Experiments 5 and 6 further showed that decrements in
self-regulation can reduce by cash incentive or increasing self-awareness.
Thus, rejected people are capable of self regulation but are normally
disinclined to make the effort.(Roy F. Baumeister and C. Nathan DeWall, 2005).


research undertaken will be a descriptive research design.


question of the researcher’s study is “Association of Resilience and
Self-regulation in Youth at Risk of Social Exclusion?”


The aim of researcher’s study is to:

1.   To
examine relationship between scores in resilience and in self-regulation.

2.   To
identify which factor within self-regulation shows the greater association with
resilience variable.

3.   Self-regulation
factors (goals, perseverance, decision-making and learning from mistakes) will
have the greatest associative strength with factors (coping and confidence,
tenacity and adaptation to change, and tolerance of negative situation) from
the resilience scale.

definition of variables:


Self-regulation is the capacity of organisms (here,
human beings) to override and alter their responses. It is the process by which
people attempt to constrain unwanted urges by gaining control over the
impulsive response.(Vohs, 2007)


The capacity to spring back, rebound, successfully
adapt in the face of adversity and develop social, academic and vocational
competence despite exposure to severe stress or simply to the stress that is
inherent in today’s world.(Henderson, 2003)


Social exclusion refers to keeping an individual or
group out of social situations.(Williams, 2005)This situation is
often created by academic failure, which happens when students fail to finish
compulsory secondary education and therefore do not meet the minimum
requirements for access to the job market.(Rew, 2003)


will be the hypothesis of researcher:

There is a significance positive relationship between self regulation and
resilience among socially excluded individuals.

H2: There will be significant greater
association between goal (self-regulation) and coping and confidence

H3: There will be significant greater
association between learning from mistake, Perseverance (self-regulation) and tolerance to negative situations, tenacity and
adaptation to change(resilience).

H4: There will be significant greater
association between decision making (self-regulation) and perception of control
and achievement, perception of support (resilience).


2 questionnaires will be use as instrument in researcher’s study.

Resilience Scale (CD-RISC)

The questionnaire use to measure resilience level
adaptedfrom (Serrano-Parra, 2012). The
scale contains 15 items with a structure of 5 subscales: (Coping and
confidence, Tenacity and Adaptation to change, Perception of Control and
Achievement, Perception of Support, Tolerance to negative situations). All
items will be measure on likert scale ranging from0 (not true at all) to 4
(true nearly all the time).The reliability coefficient of this version of the
CD-RISChas Internal consistency alpha values acceptable for the total
questionnaire items (a=0.751).

The Short Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SSRQ)

scale is from (Carey, 2004)
short self regulation questionnaire (SSRQ). It has 4 subscales (Goals, Perseverance,
learning from mistakes, Decision making). All items will be measure on likert
scale choices ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).Internal
consistency is acceptable for the total questionnaire items (a = 0.725).


of study consist of 200 i.e. 100 male and female from different vocational training
centers. Sample will be taken from 2 cities of Pakistan (Rawalpindi and

and procedure:

            Material of study will be questionnaires.
For collecting
a sample of 200 individuals, studying and training in different diplomas
programs and vocational training center. The participants of the study will be given
questionnaires and asked will be asked about their previous academic records.
Before collecting data researcher take them in confidence and their written consent will be
taken from each participant who volunteers to participate to study.
Participants first reported their demographic information than they will
complete measure of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and The Short
Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SSRQ).Then researcher will explain how to fill demographic
form and the questionnaires about resilience and self regulation. Demographic
sheet will be constructing to collect information from these participants
regarding their age, gender, and type of vocational training, grades. Here will
be no time limits set for them. They will be instructed to fill the demographic
sheet and questionnaires honestly. After filling the questionnaires results of
these questionnaires will be entered SPSS sheet and tabulated, analyzed and
interpreted through the application of SPSS. Co relational, ANOVA and
Cronbach’s alpha reliability will be use to measure internal consistency and
reliability of research questions.

of current study:

The study will help to investigate in what way self regulation and resilience
is associated.

Find the gender differences in the self-regulation and resilience among the
vocational training individuals.

Researchers will also conduct this research invocational and diplomas.


implications of research are:

The research will help the new researcher to focus and explore new researches
in the social excluded individuals of society.

Efforts will be made by parents, teachers, organizations, government to
organize workshops to explore and enhance individual’s uniqueness and skills of

3. The
importance of working on student strengths that go beyond the academic and
which can help them cope positively with the adverse situations in which they
live, so that they can build an optimistic life plan, based on competencies of
resilience such as self-regulation.

Further study can be conducted on the sample of male and female of varying ages
and on a large sample.


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