Beckett and Taylor (2010) supports the view that children develop rapidly in their early years Bowlby who suggested that children should develop a bond to their family members this is because the role of the adult is important in the lives of children, he suggested that early experiences in childhood have an important influence on development and behaviour later in life in children which is associated with the nature view Hoff, (2003) also supports this view. Bowlby’s view as cited in Beckett and Taylor 2010 is put into practice because when a child starts pre-school they have a key worker who is assigned to the child to look after them and find out their needs, the key worker will then work closely with the child and the family which supports the view of attachment. In practice, children have more than one key worker that will support a small group of children the number of key workers depends on the number of children in the setting (EYFS Statutory Framework). Ainsworth cited in Cummings (2002) states that children use their attachment figure as a secure base from which they explore this indicates that she adopts the nature view as children learn from the environment that they are in. Bretherton (1992) suggests that Ainsworth’s view is put in to practice because when children attend a mothers and toddlers group the child will go and play but looking back to see if their parent is still there which supports the view that children use their caregiver as a secure base. Field 1996 criticises Bowlby’s view that there may be more than one caregiver for children such as parents, their siblings or a babysitter. He states that children have multiple attachments figures in different stages of life; a psychobiological approach needs to be used in order to create a model to understand the relationship between two individuals. In summary, there are positives as well as criticisms of attachment theory. It would seem that attachment is important for children in order to form relationships.
Attachment theory also links with parenting styles, this is because authoritative parents need to have a bond with the child in order for the child to express themselves and have an open relationship with their parents this means that understand (Mc Cartney & Phillips (2008), Wolfe, 1999). Authoritative parents have high expectation for their children and support their children.
Steinberg (2001) suggests the strengths of authoritative parenting style mean that children have a happy and healthy environment to grow up in; it also allows the child to form a positive relationship with their parents which means that they are able to express themselves when around people this also helps with the child’s confidence. However authoritarian and neglect parenting styles were negatively related to children’s personal and social adjustment (Muhriz, Ahmad, & Al-Atum, 2005 cited in Sangawi, and Adams and Reissland 2015). This would impact the child as the child would be upset most of the time and may have holistic delays in their development they are also likely to have low self-esteem as their basic needs such as attachment, warmth, love, security, respect, to feels valued and engaged are not being met by their caregiver. (Kamptner, 2005). Assistance is usually needed for neglectful parenting so that children’s lives can be improved. Childwelfare.gov gives an example of this ‘a neighbour reporting that their neighbour “went out” last and left their 2-year-old daughter alone. The neighbour heard the toddler crying, entered the unlocked apartment, and cared for the child until the parent returned. The neighbour believes that the parent is “on drugs” this family may only require short-term child protective services intervention. Supportive services, such as childcare, single parent support groups, parenting education, and the child protective services caseworker’s helping relationship, are some ways in which stress can be reduced in the life of a young family.’