Before
this research, the raw design came in the eye of researcher during controversy discussion
period, with senior fellow and instructors on food purchase intention that
relates to the quickly development of the food market sector and level consumer
involvement, with superlative performance in both productivity and purchase of
food. That discussion period convinced the researcher to investigate the information
and knowledge related to the literature of intention of food purchase through
the level of consumer involvement previously discussed in different studies and
researches. Assessment of the reachable data relevant to the literature, then
afterwards supported the development of the theoretical framework of this study.

The
vital purpose of this review of literature is to investigate this survey by
configuration of forgoing surveys and studies conducted toward food industry
through involvement of consumer in consumption motives. Furthermore, previously
related theory, studies and conceptual models also planned to investigate in
this section which based on the area of source credibility of identified
elements or variables. The main purposes of literature review are:

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§  To
equip detailed understanding, observation, learning and practice into specific
topic

§  To
logically develop the new and improved conceptual model of the study.

§  To
deductively create the hypotheses of study.

§  To
reach perfect and higher level of validity.

   In the chapter 2 about literature review, the
researcher delivered the literature review in five mandatory parts. In the
first part of this chapter, intention of purchasing decision toward food rather
it’s organic or not and its significance is discussed. The second section of
literature review gave idea of level of consumer involvement that is directly
effect on the development of product buying perception, decision and behavior
of individual. The third part concentrated on the factors that are required to
modify the food production based on the demand and need of the customers which
useful to maximize the level of purchase intention of product. In fourth part,
the significance and importance of the food consumption motives through
consumer involvement has been examined towards purchase intention. This section
also highlighted the need of linkage between purchase intention of food
products and consumption motives of the food as health consciousness, food
safety concern, ecological motives, situational factor and personal consumer
traits i.e. inherent novelty seeking, need for interaction and self efficiency.
Finally, the theoretical/conceptual model of the study has been developed in
the last fifth section, which helps in identifying the strength of consumer
involvement between the constructs of food consumption motive and purchase
intention and their impact on food production performance necessary to change
the way and improve the quality of products in food industry and also helps to
solve food related issues.

Deployed
on the review findings and considering Pakistan as an Asian developing organic
market similar to China, India and Thailand, the current study thus considered
health consciousness, food safety concern, personal consumer traits (with the
dimension as self efficiency, need for interaction and inherent novelty
seeking), situational factors and ecological motives as the five main food
consumption motives related to food consumption decision.

Several
literature reviews helps the researchers in other  to choose or select food consumption reasons
and to determine the most important factors involving healthy food consumption.
By reviewing the summary presented by Schleenbecker and Hamm’s (2013) some most
important motives of food consumption are: freshness and taste of food i.e.
related to sensation or physical senses, food safety concern specially health
and most importantly moral values which include animal welfare and protection
of environment. In Europe, Australia, Asia, and America out of all those them
only specified health as prominent factors of food consumption. However
Thailand (Tsakiridou, Boutsouki, Zotos, & Mattas, 2008) and China(Sirieix,
Kledal, & Sulitang, 2011) gave importance to remaining two factors that is
protection of environment and food safety concern. This thing is verified when
large number of studies of organic marketing were examined across worldwide and
came to result that customers all over world related to health, safety, taste,
animal welfare and protection to environment to organic foods (e.g., Hemmerling
et al., 2015; Yiridoe et al., 2005).

1.1  Significance of Purchase intention toward
food consumption. (Purchase intention, decision, and action).

There’s
a theory about buying process Frambach, Roest, and Krishnan’s (2007) includes
three instants: i.e. pre-purchase, purchase, and post-purchase. Apparently,
pre-purchase stage further comprises of three steps, i.e. identification, information
about product, and assessment of substitute (Chaovalit, 2014). (Babin and Harris,
2015) The very first step in pre-purchase is identification, and in this a
person needs to know how to distinguish present set of circumstances (i.e.
current state) and circumstances taken as a goal (i.e. desired state). Need of
food prominent when a person is runs out of food. But according to Chaovalit
(2014), the need can also be energized externally and internally: discussion of
food with others, seeing billboards of food, posters or advertisements are some
externally energizing factors of food, however, starvation and hunger pangs are
internal factors. Once the need is identified, then person starts to gather
information about food/interested food item from various sites, places or
friends. Which are may be some friends and family members etc. (i.e. personal
source), retailers, salesman, packaging, dealers, point-of sale displays,
salespeople, advertising, etc. (i.e. advertisement source), TV, newspapers,
magazines, radio, organizations etc. (i.e. public source), or use of product, handling,
and by examining food item (i.e. Experiential sources). Miller and Washington,
2009, serviceability and impact of above sources vary from person to person and
differ for every food item/product.

(Zhen
and Mansori, 2012) independent objective just to explain or capture the
encouragement/inspiration of an individual unwillingness to take part in
specific behavior. Theory of Planned Behaviour in 1991, was given by Ajzen in
which he stated, consequences of behavior of buying is mainly conceded by buying
intentions. This theory implicit anyone’s buying intention for ones interest in
product after satisfaction with assessment (Laroche and Sadokierski, 1994;
Laroche, Kim, and Zhou, 1996; MacKenzie, Lutz, and Belch, 1986). As discussed,
external factor plays its role as stimulator in purchase intention which is
used to decide the preparedness of buying a good (Dodds, William, and Grewal,
1991). People themselves can also now gather information about products/items
previously in purchase intention just grounded on their incidents by judging
and comparing others alternatively (Wen and Li, 2013). Marketing inquiry of
purchase intention of whole population helps the sales of any company.

There’s
always a capacity of customer to buy a product/food item and this is what
purchase intention means Yoo et al. (2000). One of things is that purchase
intention of consumers is difficult to predict, because intention of customers
can only be recognized by his or her behavior towards food item or product
neither  by his/her intention only (Park
and Kim, 2016). Customers focus on purchasing a food item / product and
possibility of buying food is co-occurrence of purchase intention; propose by
Wu et al. (2015). According to the some previous studies that were being
reviewed (e.g., Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980; De Canniere et al., 2010) says that
actual intention or interest of customer directly related to purchase
intention, and this correspondence has confirmed by some researches (e.g.,
Ajzen and Driver, 1992; Buttle and Bok, 1996; Chow and Murphy, 2011; Park and
Kim, 2016; Shin, 2015).

Purchase
of healthy and safe food motives are mostly relay on ethical and moral values
and is influenced by some motives related to atmosphere and environment (Chryssohoidis
and Krystallis, 2005). These values has special pace in process of customer’s
choice of food product (Krystallis et al., 2008; Pepper et al., 2009; Thøgersen
et al., 2016). Food consumption; also including safe and healthy food, is in
relationship to animal welfare, hedonism, environmental protection, ethical
concern, humanist, and universalism (Thøgersen et al., 2016).

Values
of customers of organic food that are announced in complete, cares for others
as well as for themselves (Schwartz, 1994). Let’s take an example, studies that
has been done on organic food consumption recently proved that customers have
faith in these foods because it gives protection to their families which
mirrors the benevolence, as gives Thøgersen et al., 2015); that’s is good for
environment mirroring the values of universality, as these sets of values are
seen as “self-transcendence” (Dias et al., 2016; Thøgersen, 2011). Moreover
some of studies across world investigated and showed us the connection between
purchasing intention of healthy food and characteristic values (Thøgersen,
2011), and more importantly, no one has done research that customer’s attitude
act as a mediating variable in a relationship between will to purchase organic
or healthy food and personal value

The
effect of such values of human in process of making decisions for buying food
possibly is mediated by customer’s behavior towards purchase per item. In
emerging countries, consistency towards organic and healthy safe food is
considered positive attitude; this behavior is allude to the objective that
separate intention or choice/preference governs their behavioural attitudes
(Thøgersen, 2011; Thøgersen et al., 2015). As already being known the fact that
positive attitude is susceptibility to acquire definite way of behaving towards
anything either food or any other product (Ajzen and Fishbein, 2005),
consumption of these items or products my change in personal values.

Consumption
in emerging and fully developed merchandise has different traits; moreover,
there is a problem due to which accurate list of its differences cannot be
made, that is lack of studies and researches. While most of authors and
researchers has confidence that these differences probably not be as important
and related to organic and healthy food emerged market as they inquired and
resulted that cause of people to purchase food product are so same on both the
markets (Dias et al., 2016; Thøgersen, 2011; Thøgersen and Zhou, 2012; Yin et
al., 2010). By knowing this, so it may represents the true actuality, this is
perfect storyline and framework to know about health and organic food customers
in emerging merchandize and the effect of their personal values as precursor to
this type behavior (Burgess and Steenkamp,
2006; Sheth, 2011; Steenkamp et al., 1999), especially in countries like Brazil
and China as compare to most of  North
American and European countries considerably more barriers in purchasing
organic and safe food products, mainly in sense of price and availability
(Hughner et al., 2007; Thøgersen et al., 2015).

Key
factor for affecting purchase behavior has been acknowledges as involvement (Laaksonen,
1994). Persuading a person to gather information about related to product
generally makes an image of factors of buying the food item for assessment, by
this customer’s interest for a product will at the end influence customer’s
purchase intension about product (Richins & Bloch, 1986). Prior to this,
studies also proved that more interest of customer in any food product
increases the chance and willingness to buy a product (e.g., Kim, Kim, & Park,
2010). Especially, customers having higher intention and interest of buying
healthy and organic food products more than any of conventional food are
because of acceptance and belief in organic goods (Barrena & Sanchez, 2010;
Lind, 2007; Thøgersen, Jorgensen, & Sandager, 2012). Vermeir and Verbeke
(2006) also stated that customers who are more willing and interested in buying
organic food is because of their positive attitudes towards organic goods as
they are wellbeing aware that they claim their product safe and healthy. So the
most important end resulted factor and variable is construction of purchase
intention in this whole study; I took purchase intention as a dependent factor and
substantially H1 has been developed in this study:

1.2  Significance of Consumer
involvement as a mediator:

There
are infinite choices in food and variety in food is most important factor of
all the process involved in making decisions by customer (Grunert, 1997).
Despite of all the last twenty years inquiries and researches that has been
done, not even one researcher showed and accepted objectives for explaining
customers way of behaving and assessment of food.

Customer’s
interest is defined as “Values, ethics, involvement and intrinsic requirements
are the basis of consumer’s distinguished relevance of goods” (p. 342), in
accordance to Zaichkowsky (1985) statement. Moreover (Zaichkowsky, 1985)
explained that interest and involvement of customers is chief and foremost in
facilitating in perceiving way of behaving of consumers through careful
examination of the way people involved with TV ads, different products, or
purchase intention. Thus it has been concluded that interest of customer in
products plays a major part in attitude and behavior of customer towards food
product i.e. either customer is willing to buy or not and purchase intension
(Campbell et al., 2014; Prebensen et al., 2013). How customer’s gathers
information about particular product or food item is theoretically explained by
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) (Petty et al., 1983; Petty and Cacioppo,
1986). When thoroughly looked into ELM researchers found that there also
interest and involvement plays important role in determining how information is
being gathered and processed by customer (Chung and Zhao, 2003). Just for an
example, an outlying indication as source proficiency visibly influences the
behavior and attitudes of less interested customers, but not in comparison to
those are highly involved. The effect of positive attitude is much stronger on
customer about TV ads when he/she are not interested or less interested with
the assessment of food item (Chung and Zhao, 2003). And therefore, what role
plays by outlying way in gathering the information is more convincing for less
interested and low-involvement customers and people (Petty and Cacioppo, 1981;
Petty et al., 1983). The issue-relevant signals received through principle way
are more convincing for ore interested and high-involvement customers.

The
most affecting and influencing factor in customers’ interest and decision is
involvement, highlighted in customer research (e.g. Engel et al., 1982). As
narrated by Zaltman and Wallendorf (1983), involvement is like direct goal that
is considered as arousal (act as stimulator for mind). Or else this can be said
as, characterizing interest needs a direct goal or aim stimulator that enhance
a requirement for particular food product, any item of goods. Laurent and
Kapferer (1985) proposed while giving customer’s involvement a prominence;
there are five ways that evaluate different features of customer’s interest,
named. Similarly, Zaichkowsky (1985) three dimensions proposed the involvement
of customer: 

1.      Personal:
Values or interests and intrinsic requirements that initiates interest in
customers towards food products and goods, e.g. food items.

2.      Physical:
The traits of the (food) products that cause polarity and enhanced the interest
in buying goods.

3.      Situational:
Something that not permanently enhances relevance or involvement in goods (food
products).

That’s why a great
number of researches have been done and efforts have been made to know and
investigate that how customers behave towards certain products and how customer
select good (food product) and purchase intention (Mittal, 1989; Smith and
Carsky, 1996). Recently studies on involvement (Aldlaigan and Buttle, 2001;
Foxhall and Pallister, 1998; Howcroft et al., 2007; McCollKennedy and Fetter,
2001) involvement paly part in service profit and also used to investigate the
level and intensity of interest in service environment (Carbonell et al., 2009;
Kinard and Capella, 2006).