Beforethis research, the raw design came in the eye of researcher during controversy discussionperiod, with senior fellow and instructors on food purchase intention thatrelates to the quickly development of the food market sector and level consumerinvolvement, with superlative performance in both productivity and purchase offood. That discussion period convinced the researcher to investigate the informationand knowledge related to the literature of intention of food purchase throughthe level of consumer involvement previously discussed in different studies andresearches. Assessment of the reachable data relevant to the literature, thenafterwards supported the development of the theoretical framework of this study.Thevital purpose of this review of literature is to investigate this survey byconfiguration of forgoing surveys and studies conducted toward food industrythrough involvement of consumer in consumption motives. Furthermore, previouslyrelated theory, studies and conceptual models also planned to investigate inthis section which based on the area of source credibility of identifiedelements or variables. The main purposes of literature review are:§ Toequip detailed understanding, observation, learning and practice into specifictopic§ Tologically develop the new and improved conceptual model of the study.§ Todeductively create the hypotheses of study.§ Toreach perfect and higher level of validity.
In the chapter 2 about literature review, theresearcher delivered the literature review in five mandatory parts. In thefirst part of this chapter, intention of purchasing decision toward food ratherit’s organic or not and its significance is discussed. The second section ofliterature review gave idea of level of consumer involvement that is directlyeffect on the development of product buying perception, decision and behaviorof individual.
The third part concentrated on the factors that are required tomodify the food production based on the demand and need of the customers whichuseful to maximize the level of purchase intention of product. In fourth part,the significance and importance of the food consumption motives throughconsumer involvement has been examined towards purchase intention. This sectionalso highlighted the need of linkage between purchase intention of foodproducts and consumption motives of the food as health consciousness, foodsafety concern, ecological motives, situational factor and personal consumertraits i.e. inherent novelty seeking, need for interaction and self efficiency.
Finally, the theoretical/conceptual model of the study has been developed inthe last fifth section, which helps in identifying the strength of consumerinvolvement between the constructs of food consumption motive and purchaseintention and their impact on food production performance necessary to changethe way and improve the quality of products in food industry and also helps tosolve food related issues. Deployedon the review findings and considering Pakistan as an Asian developing organicmarket similar to China, India and Thailand, the current study thus consideredhealth consciousness, food safety concern, personal consumer traits (with thedimension as self efficiency, need for interaction and inherent noveltyseeking), situational factors and ecological motives as the five main foodconsumption motives related to food consumption decision.Severalliterature reviews helps the researchers in other to choose or select food consumption reasonsand to determine the most important factors involving healthy food consumption.By reviewing the summary presented by Schleenbecker and Hamm’s (2013) some mostimportant motives of food consumption are: freshness and taste of food i.e.related to sensation or physical senses, food safety concern specially healthand most importantly moral values which include animal welfare and protectionof environment. In Europe, Australia, Asia, and America out of all those themonly specified health as prominent factors of food consumption. HoweverThailand (Tsakiridou, Boutsouki, Zotos, & Mattas, 2008) and China(Sirieix,Kledal, & Sulitang, 2011) gave importance to remaining two factors that isprotection of environment and food safety concern.
This thing is verified whenlarge number of studies of organic marketing were examined across worldwide andcame to result that customers all over world related to health, safety, taste,animal welfare and protection to environment to organic foods (e.g., Hemmerlinget al., 2015; Yiridoe et al., 2005).1.1 Significance of Purchase intention towardfood consumption.
(Purchase intention, decision, and action).There’sa theory about buying process Frambach, Roest, and Krishnan’s (2007) includesthree instants: i.e. pre-purchase, purchase, and post-purchase. Apparently,pre-purchase stage further comprises of three steps, i.
e. identification, informationabout product, and assessment of substitute (Chaovalit, 2014). (Babin and Harris,2015) The very first step in pre-purchase is identification, and in this aperson needs to know how to distinguish present set of circumstances (i.
e.current state) and circumstances taken as a goal (i.e.
desired state). Need offood prominent when a person is runs out of food. But according to Chaovalit(2014), the need can also be energized externally and internally: discussion offood with others, seeing billboards of food, posters or advertisements are someexternally energizing factors of food, however, starvation and hunger pangs areinternal factors. Once the need is identified, then person starts to gatherinformation about food/interested food item from various sites, places orfriends. Which are may be some friends and family members etc. (i.
e. personalsource), retailers, salesman, packaging, dealers, point-of sale displays,salespeople, advertising, etc. (i.e. advertisement source), TV, newspapers,magazines, radio, organizations etc.
(i.e. public source), or use of product, handling,and by examining food item (i.
e. Experiential sources). Miller and Washington,2009, serviceability and impact of above sources vary from person to person anddiffer for every food item/product.
(Zhenand Mansori, 2012) independent objective just to explain or capture theencouragement/inspiration of an individual unwillingness to take part inspecific behavior. Theory of Planned Behaviour in 1991, was given by Ajzen inwhich he stated, consequences of behavior of buying is mainly conceded by buyingintentions. This theory implicit anyone’s buying intention for ones interest inproduct after satisfaction with assessment (Laroche and Sadokierski, 1994;Laroche, Kim, and Zhou, 1996; MacKenzie, Lutz, and Belch, 1986). As discussed,external factor plays its role as stimulator in purchase intention which isused to decide the preparedness of buying a good (Dodds, William, and Grewal,1991). People themselves can also now gather information about products/itemspreviously in purchase intention just grounded on their incidents by judgingand comparing others alternatively (Wen and Li, 2013). Marketing inquiry ofpurchase intention of whole population helps the sales of any company.There’salways a capacity of customer to buy a product/food item and this is whatpurchase intention means Yoo et al. (2000).
One of things is that purchaseintention of consumers is difficult to predict, because intention of customerscan only be recognized by his or her behavior towards food item or productneither by his/her intention only (Parkand Kim, 2016). Customers focus on purchasing a food item / product andpossibility of buying food is co-occurrence of purchase intention; propose byWu et al. (2015). According to the some previous studies that were beingreviewed (e.g., Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980; De Canniere et al., 2010) says thatactual intention or interest of customer directly related to purchaseintention, and this correspondence has confirmed by some researches (e.g.
,Ajzen and Driver, 1992; Buttle and Bok, 1996; Chow and Murphy, 2011; Park andKim, 2016; Shin, 2015).Purchaseof healthy and safe food motives are mostly relay on ethical and moral valuesand is influenced by some motives related to atmosphere and environment (Chryssohoidisand Krystallis, 2005). These values has special pace in process of customer’schoice of food product (Krystallis et al.
, 2008; Pepper et al., 2009; Thøgersenet al., 2016). Food consumption; also including safe and healthy food, is inrelationship to animal welfare, hedonism, environmental protection, ethicalconcern, humanist, and universalism (Thøgersen et al., 2016).Valuesof customers of organic food that are announced in complete, cares for othersas well as for themselves (Schwartz, 1994). Let’s take an example, studies thathas been done on organic food consumption recently proved that customers havefaith in these foods because it gives protection to their families whichmirrors the benevolence, as gives Thøgersen et al., 2015); that’s is good forenvironment mirroring the values of universality, as these sets of values areseen as “self-transcendence” (Dias et al.
, 2016; Thøgersen, 2011). Moreoversome of studies across world investigated and showed us the connection betweenpurchasing intention of healthy food and characteristic values (Thøgersen,2011), and more importantly, no one has done research that customer’s attitudeact as a mediating variable in a relationship between will to purchase organicor healthy food and personal valueTheeffect of such values of human in process of making decisions for buying foodpossibly is mediated by customer’s behavior towards purchase per item. Inemerging countries, consistency towards organic and healthy safe food isconsidered positive attitude; this behavior is allude to the objective thatseparate intention or choice/preference governs their behavioural attitudes(Thøgersen, 2011; Thøgersen et al., 2015). As already being known the fact thatpositive attitude is susceptibility to acquire definite way of behaving towardsanything either food or any other product (Ajzen and Fishbein, 2005),consumption of these items or products my change in personal values. Consumptionin emerging and fully developed merchandise has different traits; moreover,there is a problem due to which accurate list of its differences cannot bemade, that is lack of studies and researches.
While most of authors andresearchers has confidence that these differences probably not be as importantand related to organic and healthy food emerged market as they inquired andresulted that cause of people to purchase food product are so same on both themarkets (Dias et al., 2016; Thøgersen, 2011; Thøgersen and Zhou, 2012; Yin etal., 2010). By knowing this, so it may represents the true actuality, this isperfect storyline and framework to know about health and organic food customersin emerging merchandize and the effect of their personal values as precursor tothis type behavior (Burgess and Steenkamp,2006; Sheth, 2011; Steenkamp et al., 1999), especially in countries like Braziland China as compare to most of NorthAmerican and European countries considerably more barriers in purchasingorganic and safe food products, mainly in sense of price and availability(Hughner et al., 2007; Thøgersen et al., 2015).Keyfactor for affecting purchase behavior has been acknowledges as involvement (Laaksonen,1994).
Persuading a person to gather information about related to productgenerally makes an image of factors of buying the food item for assessment, bythis customer’s interest for a product will at the end influence customer’spurchase intension about product (Richins & Bloch, 1986). Prior to this,studies also proved that more interest of customer in any food productincreases the chance and willingness to buy a product (e.g., Kim, Kim, & Park,2010). Especially, customers having higher intention and interest of buyinghealthy and organic food products more than any of conventional food arebecause of acceptance and belief in organic goods (Barrena & Sanchez, 2010;Lind, 2007; Thøgersen, Jorgensen, & Sandager, 2012).
Vermeir and Verbeke(2006) also stated that customers who are more willing and interested in buyingorganic food is because of their positive attitudes towards organic goods asthey are wellbeing aware that they claim their product safe and healthy. So themost important end resulted factor and variable is construction of purchaseintention in this whole study; I took purchase intention as a dependent factor andsubstantially H1 has been developed in this study: 1.2 Significance of Consumerinvolvement as a mediator:Thereare infinite choices in food and variety in food is most important factor ofall the process involved in making decisions by customer (Grunert, 1997).
Despite of all the last twenty years inquiries and researches that has beendone, not even one researcher showed and accepted objectives for explainingcustomers way of behaving and assessment of food.Customer’sinterest is defined as “Values, ethics, involvement and intrinsic requirementsare the basis of consumer’s distinguished relevance of goods” (p. 342), inaccordance to Zaichkowsky (1985) statement. Moreover (Zaichkowsky, 1985)explained that interest and involvement of customers is chief and foremost infacilitating in perceiving way of behaving of consumers through carefulexamination of the way people involved with TV ads, different products, orpurchase intention. Thus it has been concluded that interest of customer inproducts plays a major part in attitude and behavior of customer towards foodproduct i.e.
either customer is willing to buy or not and purchase intension(Campbell et al., 2014; Prebensen et al., 2013). How customer’s gathersinformation about particular product or food item is theoretically explained byElaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) (Petty et al., 1983; Petty and Cacioppo,1986).
When thoroughly looked into ELM researchers found that there alsointerest and involvement plays important role in determining how information isbeing gathered and processed by customer (Chung and Zhao, 2003). Just for anexample, an outlying indication as source proficiency visibly influences thebehavior and attitudes of less interested customers, but not in comparison tothose are highly involved. The effect of positive attitude is much stronger oncustomer about TV ads when he/she are not interested or less interested withthe assessment of food item (Chung and Zhao, 2003). And therefore, what roleplays by outlying way in gathering the information is more convincing for lessinterested and low-involvement customers and people (Petty and Cacioppo, 1981;Petty et al., 1983). The issue-relevant signals received through principle wayare more convincing for ore interested and high-involvement customers.Themost affecting and influencing factor in customers’ interest and decision isinvolvement, highlighted in customer research (e.g.
Engel et al., 1982). Asnarrated by Zaltman and Wallendorf (1983), involvement is like direct goal thatis considered as arousal (act as stimulator for mind). Or else this can be saidas, characterizing interest needs a direct goal or aim stimulator that enhancea requirement for particular food product, any item of goods.
Laurent andKapferer (1985) proposed while giving customer’s involvement a prominence;there are five ways that evaluate different features of customer’s interest,named. Similarly, Zaichkowsky (1985) three dimensions proposed the involvementof customer: 1. Personal:Values or interests and intrinsic requirements that initiates interest incustomers towards food products and goods, e.
g. food items.2.
Physical:The traits of the (food) products that cause polarity and enhanced the interestin buying goods. 3. Situational:Something that not permanently enhances relevance or involvement in goods (foodproducts).
That’s why a greatnumber of researches have been done and efforts have been made to know andinvestigate that how customers behave towards certain products and how customerselect good (food product) and purchase intention (Mittal, 1989; Smith andCarsky, 1996). Recently studies on involvement (Aldlaigan and Buttle, 2001;Foxhall and Pallister, 1998; Howcroft et al., 2007; McCollKennedy and Fetter,2001) involvement paly part in service profit and also used to investigate thelevel and intensity of interest in service environment (Carbonell et al., 2009;Kinard and Capella, 2006).