BloodPressure (breathing rate and heart rate).The pieceof equipment used to measure blood pressure is called a sphygmomanometer orblood pressure monitor. These can be electronic or manual (aneroid).

Aneroidsphygmomanometers are said to be more accurate however they have to be used inconjunction with a stethoscope to determine at which point blood is justflowing and at which point its flow is unhindered. This makes them moredifficult to use.          Theory behind the measurement of blood pressure.The area for measuring blood pressureis on the brachial artery. There are monitors that measure the pressure at thefingers and wrists however people have found these to be unreliable.

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This isbecause systolic and diastolic pressure varies greatly. In arteries far awayfrom the heart the diastolic pressure decreases and the systolic pressureincreases. The average blood pressure for humans is 120/80 mmHg. The systolicpressure is when the heart contracts to pump blood round your body pushing onthe walls of your arteries this is the higher number of the two. This isbecause the left ventricle pumps blood at high pressures during systole tomakes sure oxygenated blood gets all the way around the body. The pressure whenthe heart is at rest between beats is called the diastolic pressure. This isthe lower number as the pressure in the walls of the arteries isn’t as high.

Systolic pressure of above 140 canbe bad for health as arteries and other vessels are constantly under stress-this is called hypertension. Also, a diastolic pressure of above 90 isconsidered to be high and is known as hypertension.Equations:Cardiac output= heart rate x strokevolumeStroke volume = amount of bloodpumped from the left ventricle in one contraction of the ventricle.

Factors that affect blood pressure (breathing rate and heart rate)Age- as people get older theefficiency of their lungs can decrease but not always.Exercise- Heart rate increasesduring exercise as more oxygen is needed around the body for respiration. Dueto this the breathing rate also increases to provide the extra oxygen required.Drugs/Medication- Medicines cancause a rise in blood pressure and heart rate. Some increase heart rate whilstothers decrease it. Smoking- Smoking can cause an increasein heart rate. Blood becomes less oxygenated due to carbon monoxide binding tohaemoglobin instead of oxygen.

The carbon monoxide in cigarettes reduceshaemoglobin’s oxygen carrying capacity which leads to an increase in bloodpressure and also breathing rate in the long term. Also, the nicotine incigarettes contributes to an increase in heart rate.Other factors include:·    Beingoverweight or obese·    Lack ofphysical activity·    Too muchsodium in your diet·    StressWhen and why would blood pressure be taken?A person’s blood pressure may betaken in order to find out if they have a high, low or normal blood pressure.Hypertension- High blood pressurethat can put excess strain on arteries and organs, this can lead to more severeproblems such as heart attacks and strokes.

Hypotension-Low blood pressureisn’t normally a worry however it can cause dizziness, fatigue and fainting.The NHS says that all people overthe age of 40 should have their blood pressure tested every 5 years in order toidentify any health problems.Blood pressure can also be measuredat home if you have the needed equipment.If you have a blood pressure thatis abnormally high your doctor may recommend that you follow one of these:·    Loweringyou salt consumption and eating a healthier, balanced diet.·    Exercisingregularly.·    Stopping smoking.·    Reducingalcohol consumption.·    Takingmedication such as Bumetanide (Bumex) and Ethacrynate (Edecrin).

·    If you mayare suspected to have a severe condition then you may be sent to acardiologist. A change in lifestyle and using medication can help to reducethe risk of blood pressure and heart rate related complications. Regularchecking of blood pressure can help to detect any problems at an early stage. Blood pressure chart with age           http://suhanijain.com/2015/09/17/blood-pressure-chart-by-age/Heart rate charthttps://www.healthtap.com/topics/normal-heart-beat-in-a-minute Breathingrate in BPMhttps://journeyofapassionaterunner.wordpress.

com/2011/07/13/take-a-deep-breath-part-i/        Lung CapacityThe piece of equipment used to measure lung capacity is called aspirometer. A spirometer measures inspiration and expiration. Inspiration isthe air breathed in and expiration is the air breathed out.        http://slideplayer.com/slide/1685301/ – diagram What does thespirometer measure?Spirometry measures the amount (volume) and/or speed (flow) of air thatcan be inhaled and exhaled. The most common measurements used are:·        Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). This is the amount of airyou can blow out within one second.

With normal lungs and airways you cannormally blow out most of the air from your lungs within one second.·        Forced vital capacity (FVC). The total amount of air that you blow outin one breath.https://patient.info/health/spirometry-leaflet Last Checked 02 December 2016 Next Review 02 December 2019 Author Dr Colin Tidy Peer reviewer Prof Cathy JacksonEquationsInspiratory capacity is the maximumamount of air that can be breathed in. IC=IRV+TVIRV= Inspirational reserve volumeMaximum volume that can be inhaledafter a normal inhale.Normal adult value 1900-3300 mL ERV=Expiratory reserve volumeMaximum volume that can be exhaledafter a normal exhale.Normal adult value 700-1200 mL TV= Tidal volumeVolume of resting breathNormal adult value 500 mL/breath RV= Residual volumeNormal adult volume 1200mL Dead space= Air inhaled duringbreathing that stays in the conducting zone.

Normal adult value 150 mL Total lung capacity= IRV+Vt+ERV+RVhttps://oli.cmu.edu/jcourse/workbook/activity/page?context=b880f22c80020ca600f04afbc7be3274  Respiratory Capacities        Description Normal adult values Inspiratory Capacity (IC) TV + IRV 2400 – 3800 mL Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) RV + ERV 1800 – 2200 mL Vital Capacity (VC) TV + IRV + ERV 3000 – 4600 mL Total Lung Capacity (TLC) TV + IRV + ERV + RV 4200 – 6000 mL Factorsthat affect lung capacity·       Asthma can contract the airways and cause a person’slung capacity to decrease.·       People at higher altitudes must breathe deeper becausethere is less oxygen present in the air.·       Age·       Food·       Weight    Measuring lung capacity can be used to determine any diseasesor health problems. Detecting and problems at an early stage is important sopeople can get treatment if they have any issues with their lungs. It can alsohelp to detect inflamed, narrowed or obstructed airways. If you know youalready have a condition it can determine the severity of your condition.

Spirometry can be used to find out if you need an inhaler ormedications that can open up your airways. Reversibility tests are carried out.These are where you use an inhaler or medication, wait for some time and thenrepeat the test again to determine if they make a difference. https://www.blf.org.uk/support-for-you/breathing-tests/spirometry-and-reversibilityThink to the diagram and information used above.Last medically reviewed:January 2017.

Due for review: January 2020 The diagram above shows the normal volume of air in aperson’s lungs and also the volume of a person’s lungs with restricted airflow.The expiratory flow rate and volume of air is much lower. This could suggestthat the person has inflamed, constricted or narrowed airways or possible acondition such as asthma. There are a number of stretches and exercises that can bedone to increase lung capacity. Lung function can’t be improved however lungcapacity can here are a few methods; ·       Stretching·       Taking vitamins such as vitamin D which is thought toincrease respiratory muscle strength.·       Avoiding dust and other airborne particles andchemical fumes.·       Do more cardio exercises to improve tolerance toexercise.https://visual.

ly/community/infographic/education/lung-capacity-infographics    Peak FlowPeak flow is the measurement of how fast someone can exhale.It is measured using a peak flow meter.https://www.quirumed.

com/en/peak-flow-meter-datospir-peak-10-adult-and-pediatric-use.html      To measure your peak flow you exhale into the tube. Make surethe arrow on the side isn’t obstructed and take a reading on the side. Readingsfor a peak flow meter can help to detect signs of asthma getting worse.

A peakflow meter can help to detect tightening airways sometime before an asthmaattack. This can help to detect and prevent asthma attacks. It can also helppeople who don’t have asthma detect symptoms.https://www.webmd.

com/asthma/guide/peak-flow-meter#1Calculation: EstimatedPEFR in Adult Females PEFR = (((Height x3.72) +2.24) – (Age x 0.03)) x 60 Where Height in meters or (inches x 0.

0254)Calculation: EstimatedPEFR in Adult Males PEFR = (((Height x5.48) +1.58) – (Age x 0.041)) x 60 Where Height in meters or (inches x 0.

0254)Calculations- http://www.fpnotebook.com/Lung/Lab/PkExprtryFlwRt.

htm               http://www.peakflow.com/top_nav/normal_values/The graph above shows the average peak flow rate for men and womenat different heights.

Peak flow values are not particularly useful fordetecting respiratory diseases however they can help to detect some diseases orthe severity of them.https://www.activ8rlives.com/support/data-collected/cardiovascular-and-respiratory/normal-peak-expiratory-flow-pef/