IdealismLearning Focus
Subject matter of the mind: literature, intellectual history, philosophy, religion
Idealism Curriculum goal
The same education for all
IdealismPreferred teaching method
Teaching for the handling of ideas: lecture, discussion
IdealismCharacter development
Imitation of exemplars, heroes
IdealismAesthetic development
Study of the master-works; values of the past heritage
RealismLearning focus
Subject matter of the physical world: mathematics, science
PragmatismLearning focus
Subject matter of social experience
ExistentialismLearning focus
Subject matter of personal choice
RealismCurriculum goal
Mastery of laws of the universe
PragmatismCurriculum goal
Creation of a new social order
ExistentialismCurriculum goal
Personal freedom and development
RealismPreferred teaching method
Teaching for mastery of information and skills: demonstration, recitation
PragmatismPreferred teaching method
Problem solving: project method, product development
ExistentialismPreferred teaching method
Individual exploration: discovery method, authentic pedagogy
RealismCharacter development
Training in rules of conduct
PragmatismCharacter development
Group decision making in light of consequences
ExistentialismCharacter development
Development of individual responsibility for decisions and preferences
RealismAesthetic development
Study of design in nature
PragmatismAesthetic development
Participation in art projects based on cross-cultural and universal values
ExistentialismAesthetic development
Development of a personal view of the world; self-initiated activities
Essentialism
An educational philosophy that holds that there is a common core of information and skills that an educated person must have; schools should be organized to transmit this core of essential material.
EssentialismPrinciples
(1) a core of information, (2) hard work and mental discipline, and (3) teacher-centered instruction.
EssentialistLearning
Transmit cultural heritage and develop good citizens. The role of the student is that of a learner. School is a place where children come to learn what they need to know, and the teacher is the person who can best instruct students in essential matters.

Student CenteredClassroom Organization
Open; flexible classroom furniture arrangement and teaching;
Student CenteredMotivation
Internal Incentives
Student CenteredDiscipline
Equal teacher and learner control
Student CenteredClassroom Climate
Teacher encourages student voices; community of inquirers
Student CenteredLearning Focus
Divergent points of view; diverse subject matter
Student CenteredTeaching Styles
Considerably less teacher talk, more learner talk; discovery based learning
Student CenteredLeadership Styles
Teacher is model of participatory authority and evaluation.
Humanism
concerned with enhancing the innate goodness of the individual. It rejects a group-oriented educational system and seeks ways to enhance the individual development of the student.
Humanism learning goal
completely autonomous person
Constructivism
emphasizes developing personal meaning through hands-on, activity-based teaching and learning
progressivism
An educational philosophy that emphasizes that ideas should be tested by experimentation and that learning is rooted in questions developed by the learner.
positivism
A social theory and educational philosophy that limits truth and knowledge to what is observable and measurable.