Cell Cycle SummaryInterphase – Interphase is the first and longest step of the cell cycle. Interphase has three main stages; G1, S, and G2.Gap 1 – In Gap 1 (also known as G1) the cell experiences growth and it synthesizes copies of proteins and organelles.S – The S in S phase stands for synthesis. In S phase DNA replication occurs. DNA Replication – In DNA replication, an enzyme called helicase “unzips” the DNA molecule by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs. The two newly formed parent strands of DNA are used as templates for building the new daughter strands. DNA Polymerase adds nucleotides according to the base pairing rules. It adds cytosine to guanine, thymine to adenine and vice versa. After checking its work, the result is two new DNA molecules, each made up of one parent and one daughter strands of DNA. This is why DNA replication is referred to as semi-conservative.Gap 2 – During Gap 2 (otherwise known as G2) the cell grows and checks for damage done to DNA during replication, as well as ensuring that all proteins necessary for cell division are present.G0 – During G0 (pronounce “G-not”) the cell is at rest. This is why G0 is often referred to as the resting phase; During this stage, the cell isn’t growing nor dividing.Mitosis – Mitosis is the phase of the cell cycle where the nuclei divide. Mitosis consists of four steps: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.Prophase – During prophase, DNA condenses from chromatin to chromosomes by bundling up. While a cell is at rest, its DNA is in the form of chromatin which is a messy tangly way to store DNA. This makes it more efficient for when a piece of DNA is being looked for. Chromosomes are useful when transferring genetic material as it is bundled up tightly and all in one piece. During prophase, the nuclear envelope begins to dissolve and spindle fibers form.Metaphase – Metaphase is the shortest phase of the cell. In this phase, the chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell.Anaphase – Throughout anaphase, sister chromatids are pulled to the opposite poles of the cell by centrioles using spindle fibers. Each sister chromatid is one side of the chromosome.Telophase – In telophase, a new nucleus starts forming over each set of chromosomes in each cell. The chromosomes start unwinding back into chromatin, and the cell membrane begins to pinch in the middle.Cytokinesis – Cytokinesis is the final step of the cell cycle in which the conjoined cells completely pinch apart and create a parent and a daughter cell. The daughter cell is the new cell that was formed. The two cells that are developed are identical. What is Cancer? Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, killing over 500,000 Americans each year. What is cancer and how does it relate to the cell cycle. The cell cycle is such a long and complicated process that it is bound to have mechanisms to protect the cell if any malfunction should occur. If circumstances arise where the mistake cannot be corrected, the cell kills itself. This is a process known as apoptosis. When a normal cell is at rest it goes into G0, a cancer cell has a mutation in the gene that allows the cell to enter this phase. In cancer, a result of genetic mutations causes this regulatory process to malfunction, and this results in uncontrolled proliferation of a cell. The clumping of cancer cells outcome in what we know as a cancerous tumor. Chemotherapy is a treatment used for cancer. Chemotherapy targets cells that divide quickly like cancer cells. A problem with chemo is that it often affects many other cells that are healthy like red and white blood cells, hair follicles, platelets and more. This is what causes the many side effects of chemotherapy such as hair loss and weak immune systems.