Ceutais a Spanish enclave situated in North Africa, circumscribed by Morocco and liestoward the finish of a restricted isthmus.
It is governed as part of Cadizprovince in Spain. Both Ceutaand Melilla have an extended history. Both cities date their original foundationto the sailors and merchants of the ancient Mediterranean, and the Phoenicians.Years later, Ceuta grew to become the site of a Carthaginian settlement, which eventually,was taken over by the Romans. The city was then captured by the Vandals, who atsome point lost it to the Byzantium during the 5th century. As theyears passed, Ceuta had been ruled by the Visigoths, Arabs, Portuguese, untilthe Spanish seized control in 1580.
Since then, Ceuta has remained ajurisdiction of Spain, except for a time period from 1694 to 1720 when theMoors gained control.Ceutaand Melilla have been considered Spanish exclaves for the past five hundredyears; however, they have never held colonial status under Spanish law. Theywere two of the fortified military settlements that Portugal and Spainconquered on the North African coast in the 15th and 16th centuries to fightpiracy.
Both cities predate African colonization by European powers and theSpanish protectorate over Northern Morocco. This protectorate was ended in 1956after Morocco successfully fought a war of independence against France. Surely,most of Morocco was under the French protectorate, so when it was terminated,Spain had no influence or real power to continue its own protectorate.AfterMorocco gained independence, it laid claim against the Spanish possessions thatincluded Ceuta, Melilla and dependent positions such as the Penon de Velez dela Gomera, Penon deAlhucemas and the Chafarinas Islands. These are still under Spanishsovereignty, populated by Spanish nationals and under the Spanish law whichmakes them an integral part of Spain. Spainclaims these territories on historical grounds: right of success and terranullius principles; longevity of occupation; national security and the UNterritorial integrity of the state principle. Spain emphasizes that most of theinhabitants there are Spanish nationals and wish to stay under Spanish rule.
Additionally, treaties were signed by Morocco and Spain in connection to theSovereign Territories. Morocco contends that the UN standards of decolonizationmust be implemented because the Spanish occupation blocks the financial andpolitical autonomy of the kingdom as the Spanish bases debilitate Moroccannational security. Definition of Key Terms CeutaIsa peninsula which narrows to an isthmus before broadening into theAlminapeninsula which is a military zone; the civilian settlement is concentrated onTheisthmus and western part of the peninsula.
There are 20 km of sea coast and 8km oflandboundaries. Melilla Aterritory that was conquered by Spain in 1497. Because of its location on theMediterranean coast and offering access to the Rif mountain region, it had tobe defended from attack by land and sea. Until the 19th century, one of itsmajor roles was that of a penal colony then it became a free-port in 1902 and animportant military base. Sovereignterritories The supreme, absolute, and uncontrollable power bywhich an independent state is governed and from which all specific politicalpowers are derived; the intentional independence of a state, combined with theright and power of regulating its internal affairs without foreigninterference.Protectorate Astate that is controlled and protected by another. Terra Nullius Principle Isa Latin expression meaning “nobody’s land”, and is a principlesometimes used in international law to describe territory that may be acquiredby a state’s occupation of it.UN standards ofdecolonization In1990, the General Assembly proclaimed the first International Decade for theEradication of Colonialism, including a specific plan of action.
BackgroundInformationSpanishcolonization After being colonized time and timeagain by the Carthaginians, Greeks, and Romans, Ceuta and Melilla becameindependent under the Byzantine ruler Count Julian. They contained commercial importancesuch as gold and ivory, and so, they were always disputed upon until 1415, whenPortugal gained control. The port passed to Spain in 1580 the Treaty of Lisbonin 1688. At the breakout of the Spanish Civil War that took place in 1936, Gen.Francisco Franco executed an expedition from Ceuta to Spain.
In 1995 theSpanish government approved statutes of autonomy for Ceuta, changing the citycouncil with an assembly similar to those of Spain’s other autonomouscommunities.Moroccan independence Morocco was inhabited by Berbers who were ruled by Rome before thearrival of the Arabs. In681, the Arabs brought with them a new language and a new religion, Islam. TheMuslim troops believed that there was no more land to conquer beyond Morocco’sAtlantic coast, so they started to spread Islam throughout the Sub- SaharanAfrica and Europe.
However, under the leadership of Tarik Ibn Ziyad, Muslimscrossed the Strait of Gibraltar and conquered Spain and Portugal. They werestopped in the south of France in a city called Poitier. Moulay Idriss created the IdrissDynasty and the first Muslim State in the west during the year 788. Since then,the country has been ruled by several other dynasties such as The Almoravids,The Almohads, The Merinides, and the Saadians. In 1660, the Alaouite Dynastysucceeded in keeping out invaders. As a result, many coastal cities likeTangier, El Jadida, and Essaouira were occupied by European powers, mainlySpain and Portugal. Spain occupied the North and theSouth of Morocco, while it was under the French protectorate in 1912.
AfterWorld War I, Tangier became an International Zone that was occupied by over 20Western countries. In 1956, Morocco finally gained itsIndependence. In 1975, The Saharan provinces returned to Morocco after the”Green March” under the Spanish control. In spite of the independenceof Morocco, the two cities Ceuta and Melilla in Northern Morocco are stilladministered by Spain. Major Countriesand Organizations InvolvedMorocco Moroccoargues that Ceuta and are remnants of Spain’s colonial past and should be cededto Morocco. Most of the Moroccan arguments rely on the similarities betweenCeuta, Melilla, and Gibraltar. The argument that they hold is that the Spanishclaim to Gibraltar is similar to the Moroccan claim to Ceuta and Melilla.Ceuta It is a Spanishexclave, military post, and free port on the coast of Morocco.
Even though itis touching the borders of Morocco, Ceuta is considered an autonomous countrymanaged by Spanish authorities. Spain The Spanish authorities claim to the two territories ofCeuta and Melilla go back to 1497. Spain believes that Ceuta and Melilla shouldbe under their rule as most of the citizens wish for it to be that way. TheSpanish authorities believe that the Moroccan government will not be able tomaintain the infrastructure and services that Ceuta and Melilla require. UNHCR NHCR has expressed concerns to the Spanish authoritiesabout the extremely poor conditions in which refugees are living in. they haveurged the government to utilize more resources to improve the situation. Theybelieve that conditions fall well short of the minimum standards required bythe recent EU directive on reception standards, which must be transferred intoSpanish law.
Timeline of Events Date Description of event October 22, 1849 Higher Spanish classes, France and the UK support the war declaration on the north African nation 1884 Spain colonizes the region now known as Western Sahara. June 30, 1958 Morocco and Spain sign the Treaty of Angra de Cintra. 1859 Spain defeats the Moroccan army in the Tetouan war. January 1, 1860 Battle of Castillejos took place and earned Spain a victory February 6, 1860 End of the Battle of Tetouan March 23, 1860 Spain claims victory in the Wad-Ras battle March 30, 1912 Morocco’s Sultan Abdelhafid signs the Fez Treaty with France, allowing the French army to make Morocco a protectorate. 1934 Western Sahara becomes a Spanish province and becomes known as Spanish Sahara. October, 1974 Morocco asked the International Court of Justice (ICJ) to decide its claims of sovereignty over Spanish Sahara. November 14, 1975 Morocco and Spain sign the Tripartite Agreement 2001 UN Envoy James Baker presents Baker Plan I 2003 Baker updates the first version of his plan, coming up with Baker Plan II April 23, 2004 Morocco rejects Baker Plan II Relevant UNTreaties and EventsLatest Treatiessigned by Spain and Morocco· Treaty of Utrecht,1713· Treaty ofMarrakesh, 1767· Hispano-MoroccanTreaty, 1799· Treaty of Tangier,October 1844.· Treaty of Wad-Ras,26 April 1860· SpanishProtectorate in Morocco, 27 November 1912 · Treaty of Angra deCintra, 30 June 1958· Treaty of Fez, 30June 1969Latest Resolutionssigned by Security Council· 16 December 1965(2072)· 13 December 1974(3292)· 22 October 1975(377)· 10 December 1975 (3458)· 29 April 1991 (690)· 30 April 2007(1754)· 31 October 2007(1783)· 26 April 2016(2285)· 28 April 2017 (2351) PreviousAttempts to solve the Issue Spain and Morocco have tried several tacticsto solve this issue; for instance, they have been working together to regulatethe extensive amount of migrants entering Spain yearly.
Ceuta and Melilla arethe most important points of controlling immigration into Spain. Since the late1990s, the European Union (EU) has spent millions of dollars to support thecontrol of the borders around Ceuta and Melilla, while paying Morocco forhelping them protect the border and funding a high fence around the towns. Resolutionscontinue to be written frequently but are not implemented in these two countries. Neither Morocco nor Spain have asked the UN forassistance to solve this issue and it doesn’t seem like the UN is focusing muchon intervening to support them.