CHAPTER
No. 04

DATA ANALYSIS

 

 

Demographic characteristics of respondents are given
below which were sum up through preliminary analysis.

 

4.1  Demographic
Characteristics

Table 4.1

Demographic
characteristics of employees for resistance to change:

Age:

Age (years)

No. of respondents

Percentage

Less than 20

15

09

21-30

60

38

31-40

55

34

41 and above

30

19

 

Experience:

Experience (years)

No. of respondents

Percentage

Less than 2

20

13

3-4

21

13

5-6

45

28

7 and above

74

46

 

Table 4.2

ORGANIZATIONAL
FACTORS

COMMUNICATION

 
Question

N

Minimum value

Maximum value

Mean

Std. Deviation

In my organization the reasons
for making this change have not been made clear.

160

1.00

5.00

3.10

1.28

My organization does not
communicate the clear vision of how things will look after change.

160

1.00

5.00

3.32

1.25

Our top leaders are not
effective change managers

160

1.00

5.00

3.42

1.24

The purpose and objectives of
the change have not been made clear.

160

1.00

5.00

3.50

1.23

Obstacles that could derail
the implementation of the change have not been identified

160

1.00

5.00

3.10

1.30

In my organization there is no
any system to address the obstacles in implementation of change

160

1.00

5.00

3.38

1.23

The nature of the work in my
work unit is not compatible with the change.

160

1.00

5.00

3.25

1.20

The way people currently think
and behave in my work unit will not be compatible with the change.

160

1.00

5.00

3.27

1.25

People in my work unit will
not be receptive to supporting the change.

160

1.00

5.00

2.88

1.34

Top leadership is not
committed to the success of the change.

160

1.00

5.00

2.80

1.33

We have not necessary
resources in my work unit to achieve the change goals.

160

1.00

5.00

2.56

1.27

Our performance management
system does not support the change objectives.

160

1.00

5.00

2.75

1.32

Top management’s actions are
not consistent with the change objectives.

160

1.00

5.00

2.78

1.32

People in my work unit have
not enough knowledge/skills necessary to achieve our work unit’s
change-related goals.

160

1.00

5.00

3.36

1.23

People in my work unit do not
believe that change, in general, is important for our continued success.

160

1.00

5.00

2.68

1.31

Previous changes at Company
have not been well managed.

160

1.00

5.00

3.35

1.25

Total

160

1.00

5.00

3.09

1.27

 

Conclusions (4.2 Table):-

 

In organizational factors Communication is essential
to transmit the objectives of change process. Conclusions are given below after
getting data analysis.

1-        “In my organization
the reasons for making this change have not been made clear”.

 Mean value is 3.10 which is just over the
neutral venue but can be considered as neutral. So, it shows that employees
were slightly informed but not clear at all.

2-      My organization does not communicate the clear vision of how
things will look after change.

Mean
value is 3.32 which is over the neutral venue. It shows that organization did
not clearly convey pin picture after change.

3-      “Our top leaders are not effective change managers”

The mean value is 3.42 which
lie in agreed portion. It shows that top management is not effective change
managers.

4-      “The purpose and objectives of the change have not been made
clear”.

The
mean value is 3.50 which show closeness to be agree. It means that organization
did not clear the purpose of change.

5-      Obstacles that could derail the implementation of the change
have not been identified.

Mean
value is 3.10 which is just over the neutral venue but can be considered as neutral
venue which shows that identification of obstacles during implementation were
not clear

6-       In my organization
there is no any system to address the obstacles in implementation of change

Mean
value is 3.38 which lies in agreed portion. It means respondents are not agree
that there is a system that detects the obstacles in implementation process.

7-       The nature of the
work in my work unit is not compatible with the change. 

Mean
value is 3.25 shows that nature of work unit is not compatible with change.

8-      The way people currently think and behave in my work unit
will not be compatible with the change.

Mean
value is 3.27 which allows to conclude that employees are agree that behavior
of work unit will not compatible with change.

9-      People in my work unit will not be receptive to supporting
the change.

Mean
value is 2.88 which lies in disagreed portion which shows people will receptive
to change.

10-  Top leadership is not committed to the success of the change.

Mean
value is 2.80 which lie in disagreed portion which shows that management is
committed for the successful implementation.

11-  We have not necessary resources in my work unit to achieve
the change goals. Mean value is 2.50 which
show rejection from respondents. It illustrate that necessary resources are
available to achieve the change process. 
 

12-  Our performance management system does not support the
change objectives. Mean value of this question
is 2.75 which shows that respondents are not agree with question. Its means
management system is capable to support change objectives.

13-  Top management’s actions are not consistent with the change
objectives,

Mean value is 2.78 which
exhibits that management is consistent to adopt change objective.

14-  People in my work unit have not enough knowledge/skills
necessary to achieve our work unit’s change-related goals,

Mean
value is 3.36. This value indicates that people in the organization require
more counseling and trainings to achieve change goals..

15-  People in my work unit do not believe that change, in
general, is important for our continued success,

Mean
value is 2.68. it shows that people believe in change process foe success.

16-  Previous changes at Company have not been well managed,

Mean value is 3.35 , lies
in the agrees section which shows that previous change imposition have not been
well managed.

 

All
living things existing on the planet communicate to each other and
their way of communication is different to each other. This theory of communication
was firstly proposed by S. F. Scudder (1980)       

Francis (1989) and De-Rider
(2003) categorized organizational communication into two parts which shows the
importance of communication in an organization.

1-      Tasks
and policies must be informed to the employees.

2-      One
should create community within the organization.

Average mean value of organizational
communication factors remained 3.09 and standard deviation is 1.27 which
concludes bad communication within the organization. Effective change
management is required, Previous change implementation experience was not good,
so successful implementation is essential ti retrieve the confidence.

 

Table No. 4.3

PERSONAL
FACTORS

Participation in
decision making

 
Question

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std.
Deviation

I don’t understand the things
I will need to do differently to support the change.

160

1.00

5.00

2.63

1.31

Total

160

1.00

5.00

2.63

1.31

Conclusions Table No. 4.3

Mean value is 2.63 that exhibits the results as
respondents thinks that their role will be different after change process.

 

Table No. 4.4

PERSONAL
FACTORS

Information and Knowledge exchange

 
Question

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std.
Deviation

I don’t understand what my
role will be in achieving my work unit’s change goals.

160

1.00

5.00

2.50

1.26

I have not enough
knowledge/skills necessary to do my part in achieving my work unit’s
change-related goals.

160

1.00

5.00

3.60

1.20

I have the time needed to
fulfill my role in the change and also keep up with my regular workload.

160

1.00

5.00

3.70

1.15

Total

160

1.00

5.00

3.26

1.20

 

Conclusions Table No. 4.4

 

1.        
“I don’t understand
what my role will be in achieving my work unit’s change goals.”

Mean value is 2.50 which
shows that respondents know ther role after implementation of change process.

2.        
“I have not enough
knowledge/skills necessary to do my part in achieving my work unit’s
change-related goals.”

Mean value is 3.60. this
result indicates that respondents are agreed with change and know their role
after implementation.

3.        
“I have the time
needed to fulfill my role in the change and also keep up with my regular
workload.”

Mean value is 3.70,
indicates that people are ready to adopt change but some arrangements are
required.

After getting the average
mean value of all “information and knowledge exchange” personal factors, we get
mean value 3.26 which established that respondents are not in favor of change
adaptation.

 

Table No. 4.5

PERSONAL
FACTORS

Motivation

 
Question

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std.
Deviation

I am not personally committed
to making the change a success.

160

1.00

5.00

3.25

1.27

I have no opportunities to
express my opinion about the change and make suggestions.

160

1.00

5.00

3.46

1.24

Total

160

1.00

5.00

3.30

1.25

 

Conclusions Table
No. 4.5

 

“I am not personally
committed to making the change a success.”

Mean value is 3.5, so mean value indicates that respondents
are not personally motivated.

“I have no opportunities
to express my opinion about the change and make suggestions.”

Mean value is which shows that employees are not
given such environment in which they explore new things.

Overall result shows lack of motivation within the organization which is
indicated by over all mean value of motivation as personal factor i.e 3.30

Table No. 4.6

PERSONAL
FACTORS

TRUST

 
Question

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std.
Deviation

My opinions and suggestions about
the change are not listened to and not given fair consideration.

160

1.00

5.00

3.66

1.17

I do not receive honest and
accurate information about the change and its impact.

160

1.00

5.00

3.63

1.16

I am not involved in
change-related decisions that affect me.

160

1.00

5.00

2.68

1.32

I have no resources that I
need to achieve change-related goals.

160

1.00

5.00

3.70

1.16

The proposed change will not
have a positive impact on my job.

160

1.00

5.00

3.41

1.22

The proposed change will not
have a positive impact on my career opportunities at this company.

160

1.00

5.00

2.88

1.35

I do not believe that the
proposed change is necessary and worthwhile.

160

1.00

5.00

3.30

1.25

I have no access that I need
to key decision makers.

160

1.00

5.00

2.50

1.27

Total

160

1.00

5.00

3.22

1.23

My opinions and suggestions about the change are not listened to and
not given fair consideration.

Mean value 3.66 shows the
lack of involvement of employees for suggestions and opinion.

I am not involved in change-related decisions that affect me.

Mean value 3.63 shows the
lack of involvement of employees’ for policy making.

I have no resources that I need to achieve change-related goals.

Mean value 3.68 the lack
of resources for the purpose of goal achievement.

The proposed change will not have a positive impact on my job.

Mean value 3.70 shows they
seems positive impact after changing for their jobs.

The proposed change will not have a positive impact on my career
opportunities at this company.

Mean value 3.41 shows they
reject the question and established that positive impact will be after changing
for their careear..

I do not believe that the proposed change is necessary and
worthwhile.

Mean value 3.30 shows that
respondents endorsed that change is necessary.

I have no access that I need to key decision makers.

Mean value 2.50 shows that respondents need decision makers.

Overall results show that respondents are unsatisfied
and receive no information and they have no participation in any level, due to
this reason they are against to change.

 

 

Summarization of results:

 

N

Mean

Std.
Deviation

ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS
COMMUNICATION

160

3.09

1.27

PERSONAL FACTORS
Participation in decision making

160

2.63

1.31

Information and
Knowledge exchange

160

3.26

1.20

Motivation

160

3.10

1.17

Trust

160

3.22

1.23

Total
Average

160

3.06

1.23

 

 

 

The average mean is 3.06 and standard deviation is 1.23
which indicate the overall resistance towards change of respondents.   

 

 4.5- Summary

 

There are many organizations
which take step to improve their strategies and reorganize the organizational
structure but implementation is very crucial and critical for change process
which receives resistance from employees at different stages of different
intensities. Many of managers got bad experience and compelled to take back
changes which they want to implement. INVOTECH
EXCEL FZCO organization was selected to test or try for the identification of
those factors which contribute major role in change process. INVOTECH EXCEL
FZCO is exploring business in Pakistan also since 2010 and launched a separate
fertilizer business to its own subsidiary.

In INVOTECH EXCEL FZCO, two major factors were categorized and analyzed.

Organizational
Factors:

These factors may be considered as
organizational behavior & environment, values & customs, believes &
belongings with respect to the management.

Personal
Factors:

These factors may be considered as interests
& jobs, risks & confidence, abilities & opportunities and biases
with respect to own personality of employees.

 

Whole research work was carried
out analyze one major factor which is ” Employees resistance towards
organizational change in INVOTECH EXCEL FZCO”. After data analysis, we found
that

Mean value: 3.06

Slandered Deviation: 1.23

There were two major sub-categories
of resistance, which are evaluate following results:

Organizational
Factors:

Average mean value is 3.09 which draw results
as the poor communication.

Personal
Factors:

Average mean value 3.00 which falls in
neutral venue which shows that there are various lacks which should be rectify
for improvement of personal; factors.