Chapter 4: Importance of Location  The purposeof this chapter is to investigate the Environmental aspect of the future ofhistorical buildings. This will be presented by analysing previous projectsthat have a significant importance in their location and that have either beenleft to decay, or have had the opportunity to be renovated.

Giving mention tothe theme of Industrial Architectural Heritage along the European histories timeline.  4.0: Environmental Aspects  Climatechange is an ever-growing threat to our society and the environment, it hasbeen linked to many disturbances such as an increase in the intensity ofextreme weathers events – flash floods and high winds. The preservation ofhistorical buildings in rural areas is not only in crisis due to the weather,but also manmade catastrophes.  We shouldvalue our historical landmarks for a cultural future, however it cannot becertain if a building will last.

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Control measures are taken before renovationor demolition, including building regulations, quality and condition of thebuilding and site, and a lack of recorded information (Baker, Moncaster andAl-Tabbaa, 2017). Another environmental aspect is the growth of the touristeconomy and the contribution to the conservation of our built environment.  Over time, the landscape can alter and environmentschange, and this can create either a beneficial aspect on a buildings future,or cause its demise. The investigation of the following case studies willdemonstrate the significance of the landscape that surrounds us.  4.1: Case Studies  The protection of the industrial heritage covers a broadrange of different topics including historical, architecture, civil engineeringand ecological aspects. Research and conservation of industrial buildingsstarted in the 1950s, the Society for Industrial Archaeology was established in1973 and in 1978 the International Committee on the Conservation of IndustrialHeritage was founded (Sýkora, Holický and Marková, 2010).All threecase studies are from different areas of Europe, and have some sense ofsignificance to society, by either demonstrating the value of our history, orto modernise our past.

1.     Tate Modern (1891) (Figure 8) by architectSir Giles Gilbert Scott, situated on the Bankside in London, originally a powerstation for London. 2.     Völklingen Ironworks (1881) (Figure 13) founded by Julius Buch, situatedin the German town of Völklingen, Saarland, originally the oldestpower station of the 19th century. 3.     Copenhagen Waterworks (1859) (Figure 16)built and designed by the construction and engineer company, Cochrane & Co,in conjunction with architects Niels Sigfred Nebelong.   4.

2: TheTate Modern (1891 – 1963) Figure 8:  Bank Side Power Station (1891 – 1963) (Graces guide, 2014)   The BankSide Power Station (figure 8) was one of the many industrial buildingsconstructed across the urban landscape that was required for the generation ofelectricity. The station was built in three phases; In 1891 (Pioneer station), itsreplacement Bankside A was completed in 1938 and Scott’s Bankside B PowerStation replaced Bankside A in 1963.  Itsriver fronted location enabled the cheaper transportation of construction materialsand goods to site.  The power station wasself-sufficient and it was claimed to be a superior building in its time.   The buildingwas required to ‘minimise the physical and environmental impact on itssurroundings’ (Greater London Industrial Archaeology Society, 2018) which had inspiredarchitect Sir Giles Gilbert Scott to create inventive designs. Unfortunately, theinternal machinery design of the building caused economic and environmentalconcerns.

This lead to the station closing in 1981.  The futureof Bank Side was uncertain following its closure in 1981. It was ‘too new forofficial listing’ (GLIAS, 2018) as a building of historical importance Scott’s Batterseapower station which was listed, despite similar construction. Recently in 1994the ‘Trustees of London’s Tate Gallery’ (engineering- timelines, 2018) acquiredthe site to display post-modern art. A competition was held for the design andrenovation of the building; the Swiss architectural firm Herzog and de Meuron wonthe accolade and drew plans for the new art gallery. Internalrenovations were designed with the original industrial space, enhanced by usingconcrete, glass and steel.

 The Glasspenthouse ‘Lightbeam’ (Engineering Timelines, 2018) began construction in 1998,it sits upon the original building as a public space enabling visitors tooversee London across the river Thames. In 1998, theTurbine hall roof was redesigned creating an open light space for installationof art and the main entrance. Tate modern (figure 9) was finally completed in theyear 2000, whilst leaving much of the historical fabric of the originalbuilding. The original traveling crane is still in-situ to assist the movementof large exhibits Figure 9: Tate Modern from Millennium Bridge (TATE, 2018)  Theimportance of revitalization of redundant buildings is clearly shown in thisGallery, it is in ‘keeping with government policy on regeneration’ (GLIAS,2018).

The building still sits in its original brick-clad steel frame, alongwith the brick panelling façade lining the river.  Although the surroundings of the industrialbuilding have changed beyond recognition since the photograph in Figure 8, thedistinctive square brick chimney still dominates the skyline. Scott wasemployed to ensure that the station did not compete with the opposite landmark,St Paul’s Cathedral and simplified the building with its single brick chimney.  The criticsof the 1940s (GLIAS, 2018) wanted to keep all independent developmentsseparate, however this location draws many tourists due to the many famouslandmarks along Bankside including, Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre and BoroughMarket. As tourism increased, it was decided that a link should be designed todraw Bankside’s landmarks together.

This steel suspension foot bridge, known asthe Millennium foot bridge was designed by Norman Foster and constructed on1996.   Figure 10: Original Fort Dunlop Tyre Factory (1928) (Paul Boot)   Figure 11: Battersea power station (1929 – 1955) (Accessed on Battersea Power Station, 2018)   Historically, it was noted that the ‘Tate’sdecision to locate in the former power station’ (Teedon, P. (2001) p.

459) wouldbe unsuccessful, however this draws to the conclusion that the value ofhistorical sites, their presence and their reflection upon hierarchy within thecity has proved the critics incorrect.  There aremany industrial landmarks in the UK which have become famous for their designand significance to their locations.  The FortDunlop Factory (1920’s) (Figure 10) and The Battersea Power Station (1920’s)(Figure 11) are important examples of how to create influential landmarks,making their environmental importance distinguished along the city waterways. Figure 12: Newly built Travelodge attached to renovated warehouse (RIBA, 2018)   These Grade II listed Industrial buildingswere constructed in the 1920s and both had an influential aspect to thesurrounding area, both in the past and the future. The Former Rubber tyrecompany (Fort Dunlop Factory) was designed by architects Philip Sidney Stottand WW Gibbings. It is located in Birmingham and was principally used for thestorage of tyres, but became derelict after two decades until redevelopment by industrialarchitectural firm Urban Splash.  One of thebiggest challenges during the decision-making process was finding anappropriate use.

Their aim was to regenerate the building and turn it into apositive landmark which could be seen when entering Birmingham from the M6. Ithas been redeveloped into offices, shops, a Travelodge and the head office of Birmingham’sPost’s publisher BPM Media. The initial proposal was for residential dwellings,but due to the noise pollution from roads and aircrafts, it was deemedinappropriate.

 In 2014, Tristan Capital achievedplanning permission for the recent renovation on the site for a new enclosedglass conference area on the roof of the building which will give views overthe city. (Jones, 2016) Being alisted landmark, this building has sadly lost its architectural heritage asmost of the original skin has been stripped away and replaced with blue cladding,steel and glazing. Previously the architects had retained one of the existingcolumns and maintained one of thestructuralcores, however this was later removed and replaced by a glazed wall. The entrancefrom the carpark still shows the remains of the original access into thefactory, which ensures the validity of the original building. Manyproblems were raised as to the condition of the building at the design stage, suchas ‘not meeting current fire regulations’ (Baker, Moncaster and Al-Tabbaa,2017) which was due to the increase in glazing. It was decided that the warehouse was to be retained because of its listinggrade and importance to the local community (Urban Splash, 2007). Due to the isolatedlocation, the installation of garden walkways should improve public footfall infront of the building.  Similarly,having the ambition to connect society with the environmental landscape is theBattersea Power Station (Figure 11).

The masterplan of Rafael Viñoly is to connect the riverside walk and the Battersea Park withthe green spaces around the new development. Viñoly hasclearly demonstrated the significant importance of the environment to abuildings future and the way people can appreciate it.  London’sinfluential landmark Battersea Power Station (1929 – 1955) (Figure 11) broughtconcern over environmental impacts. This resulted after a committee’s decisionto being partially demolished in the 1980s. During the early stages of planningprocedure, questions were raised by protestors about the effects of airpollution which could harm the surrounding urban landscape.

It was alsospeculated that the pollution could harm the “noble buildings of London” (BatterseaPower Station, 2018) and the nearby artwork in the Tate Gallery. However, asthe building had provided London’s electricity for 50 years, the building hadsince become a ‘popular landmark and an architectural symbol of the fascinationthat surrounds technology’ (Bowler and Brimblecombe, 1991). It was later subjectedto a decommissioning and demolition order in the 1980s which caused yet anotherpublic protest. The significance of this building grew due to public demand andbecame a Grade II listed landmark (1980) (under the Planning Act 1990) forsociety to cherish. Both theBank Side (Figure 8) and Battersea Power Station (Figure 11) are constructedwithin a steel grid frame. Sir Giles designed the external brick cladding andthe towers which distinguish these two buildings today. The Battersea Station isbased around four white cylinder shell chimneys, which silhouettes the twopower stations below. The building was described as a ‘temple of power’ (BatterseaPower Station, 2018) demonstrating the embodiment of energy to the area and wasranked to be equal with St.

Paul’s Cathedral.   Figure 13: Construction site of Battersea Power Station (JOHNS, 2018)    The landmarkis currently being brought back to life (figure 13) to rehouse a brand-newcommunity with parks and cultural spaces which will regenerate this area ofLondon.  The architect Rafael Viñoly has created a spectacular masterplan for the new life at theBattersea Power Station, seeking the same ambition and attention to detail thatSir Giles Gilbert Scott brought to the original power plant. It is desired to preserve andillustrate as much of the original body as possible and to give value to itsheritage.  Amongst the renovation, specialist heritage architectsfrom Purcell have worked with the contractors to assess and document every itemthat is salvaged from the station to reuse or re-purpose. Thousands of items re-claimedare being stored for future use, amongst those are the four chimneys which arebeing rebuilt and painted to match the originals.  Specialist contractors are ensuring thatsuitable materials are being used to repair and replace, both solid walls andjoinery.   4.

3: VölklingenIronworks (1873) Figure 14: Völklingen Ironworks (1873) (UNESCO, 2018)     The Völklingen Ironworks (figure 14) was founded in 1873 by Julius Buch andconstruction began by Carl Röchling. It became redundant in 1986, it was declaredby UNESCO as a world heritage site and merited as a Grade II listed building.  It is located in the western German town ofVolklingen, Saarland. Today it is a museum, an interactive science centre focusingon the making of iron. In addition to this, temporary exhibits, on a variety oftopics are hosted in the larger power halls and in the summer, concerts areheld.

 The Völklingen monument is an anchor point of the EuropeanRoute of Industrial Heritage, the authenticity and completeness is underlinedby a series of technological milestones in innovative engineering.  The famous monument illustrates history of the19th century and also the transnational Saar-Lorraine-Luxembourgindustrial region in the heart of Europe. The ironworks are a symbol of humanachievement during the First World War and Second Industrial Revolutions.  Theindustrial complex dominates the surrounding landscape, its raw installationsand processing equipment for coal and iron demonstrate a significant value tothe power of technical advances in the 19th Century.

Theseinstallations have been left untouched since the production started in 1986,leaving evidence of history of the works in the form of individual items thathave preserved substantial elements of their original form. Reconstruction andnew installations were added during the 19th century, including thegas-blowing engines built between 1905 and 1914 and the coking plant in 1935.   Figure 16: Eisfabrik Ice Factory (1827) (Accessed on Abandoned berlin, 2018)   Figure 15: Zollverein Coal Mine (1847) (Patricia Alberth)     The laws and regulations protecting thislandmark are under the Federal Republic of Germany and the State of Saarland.

It has been a ‘cultural movement under the act on the Protection and Care ofMonuments since 1987’ (Centre, 2018).  The conservation unit of this site carry outregular inspections and evaluations of the plant, and are ensured to secure andprotect the monuments. Buildings like the Zollverein Coal Mine IndustrialComplex (1847) (Figure 15) and Eisfabrik Ice Factory (1827) (figure 16) are contrasting monumentswhich represent the historical importance of the 19th century.   The industriallisted Zollverein Coal Mine (Figure 15), located in Land Nordehein-Westfalen,Germany, was founded in 1847 and consists of its original material, evidence ofthe evolution and decline of an essential industry over the past 150 years (UNESCO,2018).

  Architects Fritz Schupp andMartin Kemmer developed this monument in the similar style of the Bauhaus as agroup of buildings which combined form and function. Regarding the Völklingen Ironworks, this building is part of an industry of greateconomic significance in the 19th and 20th century. Itwas built after the political and economic disturbance and change in Germanywhich was represented aesthetically in the transition from expressionism tocubism and functionalism (UNESCO, 2018). As this building has withstood littletransformation, it still reflects an era in which globalisation and interdependenceof economic factors played a vital part.  Technology and other structures in this eraare represented in these heavy industries, through the development andapplication of the modern movement.

  Similar tothe style of industrial architecture is the abandoned Eisfabrik Ice Factory(figure 16) founded by Carl Bolle in 1872, located in Köpenicker Straße, Berlin. It was shut down in 1995 due tothe decrease in demand for ice and subsequently a fire which broke out in 1995.It is protected under Denkmalschutz (cultural heritage management committee)who conserve this listed building.

  Eventhough this building is one of the last examples of this industry in Germany, itis being considered for demolition (Abandoned Berlin, 2014) and rebuilt intoapartments and offices. It is another building which has survived manyturbulent historical catastrophes, including two World Wars and countlessfires. Preserving this landmark exhibits these tragic events and adds to thetimeline which scatters across Germany.  TheZollverein monument (figure 15) was required to keep its original form byconservation group ‘Act on the Protection and Conservation of monuments of theState of North Rhine-Westphalia’, with significant parts of the industrialplant being preserved and their interrelationships remain visible. TheZollverein Foundation was established to be responsible for the management andsustainable development of the World Heritage Property.