Chapter 7- Module 31: Studying and Building MemoriesMemory- In the mind, information is stored relating to experiences and things that have happened over periods of time.Encoding- changing information into a new formStorage- where your memories are storedRetrieval- being able to get certain information at the time you need itParallel Processing- the part that divides the brain into four parts, for quality of processSensory Memory- a little footage remembered through sensory infoShort-term Memory- when you forget things right after it was storedLong-term Memory- remembering things for eternity Explicit Memories- information that can 100% be rememberedEffortful Processing- trying to remember things you learned straight from a personAutomatic Processing- remembering things consciouslyImplicit Memories- remembering something by your own learningIconic Memory- lasts for a short period of time before vanishing completelyChunking- putting things together that go together, in groups naturallyMnemonics- a device that helped people remember images or acronymsSpacing effect- learning every so often to remember things better and not all at onceTesting effect- rereading information just learned to remember it better and learn it another timeShallow processing- changing basic things into letters or words or soundsDeep processing- the straight up meaning of somethingModule 32- Memory Storage and RetrievalHippocampus- forms explicit memoriesFlashbulb Memory- remembering the events through memories that took place at an emotional timeLong- Term Potentiation- a long lasting connection of synapses which creates long-term memories Recall- to remember somethingRecognition- identifying somethingRelearning- the process of learning something againPriming- a stimulus influences another stimulus which allows the memory to be formedMood-Congruent Memory- a recalled moodSerial Position Effect- when someone remembers the first and last parts of something well and the middle parts very badlyModule 33: Forgetting, Memory Construction, and Memory ImprovementAnterograde Amnesia- unable to make new memories in the presentRetrograde Amnesia- unable to remember the memories from the pastProactive interference- when the old information stops you from learning the new informationRetroactive interference- when you can’t learn new information because you are remembering the old againMisinformation Effect- inputting misleading information into someone’s memorySource Amnesia- the inability to remember where you obtained certain information from and when or howDeja Vu- the feeling that you’ve already done somethingModule 34: Thinking, Concepts, and CreativityCognition- mental processesConcepts- putting things together that are similar and familiarCreativity- using original ideas to make something of a form of workConvergent Thinking- getting rid of other problems to try and remember the best onesDivergent Thinking- having many solutions to one problemModule 35: Solves Problems and Making DecisionsAlgorithms- thinking that can solves problems, most accurate Heuristic- no errors in solving the problemInsight- solving a problem very quicklyConformation Bias-  when you only receive information that will help your bias opinionMental Set- having the mindset that there is only one way to solve a problemIntuition- what first comes to mind when trying to solve a problemRepresentativeness Heuristics- used to make a judgement on a situation using probability Overconfidence- being more than regularly or normally and even average belief in yourself or in someoneBelief Perseverance- when people think their beliefs are true even when there is reason to believe it isn’tFraming- people act a certain way because the bias is presented in a certain, unfamiliar wayModule 36: Thinking and LanguageReceptive Language- being able to understand language as a wholeProductive Language- speaking and writing skills relating to languageStatistical Learning- trying to find a problem solving function based off of dataCritical Period- the time when you gain the most information, usually during your childhood