Integration of skills In language assessment In assessing lag, Integration is even more of a certainty because assessment virtually always Implies a “two-way street” BTW the teacher/ tester and students: A set of questions or prompts Is produced by the teacher and comprehended by the test- taker. Integration Is of course authentic In Its simulation of real-world communication.

No single skill is actually treated independently. [2] Assessing grammar and vocabulary No such thing as a test of grammar or vocabulary that does not invoke one or more of the separate skills of listening, speaking, reading or writing. -A communicative language- teaching approach emphasizes spontaneous communication In which focus on form Is Implicit for perhaps most of the minutes of a classroom hour.

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But In every effective communicative classroom, there Is an appropriate and propitious time for explicit focus on form. [3] Observing the performance of the four skills. The relationship BTW the two interacting concepts of performance and observation 1) To consider the fallibility of the results of a single performance.

Teacher needs to triangulate one’s measurements. Several tests that are combined to form an assessment -a single test with multiple test tasks to account for learning styles and performance variables -in-class and extra-class graded work -alternative forms of assessment (Journal, portfolio, conference, observation, self- assessment, peer-assessment) CLC. (2) Rely as much as possible on observable performance. In our assessments of As Observable 0 being able to see or hear the refinance of the learner (the senses of touch, taste, and smell don’t apply very often to lag testing). -The process of the listening performance itself is the invisible, in audible process of internalizing meaning from the auditory signals being transmitted to the ear and brain. The product of listening and reading is not the spoken or written response.

Possible interpretation to the message (literal + intended meaning to the utterance) Delete the exact linguistic form in which the message was originally received in favor of conceptually retaining important or relevant info in long-term memory *Basic types Intensive Listening for perception of the components of a larger stretch of lag (phonemes, words, intonation, discourse markers) Responsive Listening to a relatively short stretch of lag. Selective Processing stretches of discourse in order to “scan” for certain information.

To look for lobar or general meanings but to be able to comprehend designated info in a context of longer stretches of spoken lag Extensive Listening to develop a top-down, global understanding of spoken lag Extensive performance ranges from listening to lengthy lectures to listening to a conversation and deriving a comprehensive message or purpose Interactive skills : Perhaps annotating, questioning, discussion : Listening that includes all four of the above types as test-takers actively participate in discussions, debates, conversations, role plays, and pair and group work [6].