Children are one of most important
segment for marketers. Children are said to be consumers of three generations.
Firstly, they themselves are consumers in their childhood because they consume
different goods from candies to gadgets. Secondly, children use Pester Power to
bargain and pursue their parents to buy goods and services of their wishes
hence children are involved in the decision making of buying of adults.
Thirdly, children themselves are future consumers. Marketers decide future
strategies to target these children in future by analyzing current buying
behavior of these children. Task Force on Advertising and Children (Kunkel et
al., 2004) estimated that more than US$12bn per year is spent to reach the
youth market in the USA. Most of the advertising to children is done through
medium of television but nowadays children have i-pads, tablets, and smart
phones. So they also watch ads through their i-pads, tablets, and smart phones.
The television commercials of today
are often one element of a larger marketing design (integrated marketing) that
includes such features as attractive product packaging, strategic placement on
store shelves, in-store displays, cross promotions, television program and
movie product placement and internet marketing (Center for Science in the
Public Interest, 2003).
Typically, child actors or animated
characters portrayed in food and beverage commercials are depicted as having
fun with their peers and showing happy feelings when consuming the advertised
food product (Center for Science in the Public Interest, 2003). Food
advertising efforts forge long-lasting brand relations with children, youth and
parents to create brand loyalty in the future (Palmer and Carpenter, 2006).The
food advertised on television programming in the UK, USA and many countries is
inconsistent with healthy eating recommendations for children (International
Association of Consumer Food Organizations, 2003; Story and French, 2004).
The aggressive marketing and
advertising of high caloric food products targeting children has been
identified by the World Health Organization (2003) as a probable causative
factor contributing to the epidemic of childhood obesity. Commercials
overwhelmingly promote food products that are high in sugar, fat and sodium
while neglecting healthy foods high in fiber, vitamins and minerals such as
fruits or vegetables (Harrison and Marske, 2005). (Valentina Nicolini et al.,
2017) says that’s the quantity of public service announcements (PSAs)
broadcasted on television is not sufficient compared to the quantity of
commercial advertisements (Gantz et al., 2008; Puggelli and Bertolotti, 2014).
Till the date, one study has been
conducted by Valentina Nicolini et al., 2017 to see the effect of emotional and
rational appeals on children’s attitude towards the social advertising or
public service announcements (PSAs) that were promoting and persuading children
to eat fruits and vegetables. The study showed that both components emotional
and rational have significant role in children’s preference towards an
This paper presents findings of
quantitative method research study conducted in Pakistan with sample of
children aged 8 to17. The purpose of study was to understand impact of rational
and emotional appeals on children’s attitude towards social advertisement that
promoted eating fruits and vegetables in Pakistan.