What are the roles of a teacher?
1 – Classroom Management
2 – Curriculum
3 – Instructional Strategies
What are the three learning domains?
Affective Domain
Cognitive Domain
Emotional Intelligence
Define Teaching:
The use of pre-planned behaviours that increase the probability of effective a positive change in student behaviour.
What are the advantages of a hierarchical approach?
1 – Systematic Implementation
2 – Variety of Approaches
What does CALM stand for?
Act on it
What makes teaching a profession?
Professionals make decisions that utilize knowledge in their area of expertise.
Educators make instructional and management decisions based on their specialized knowledge and pedagogy, cognitive psychology and child development.
What is affecting behavior?
What the teacher is doing to ideally change the behaviors.
What is the targeted behavior?
How you would like the students to respond.
What are the four teacher power bases?
Referent Power
Expert Power
Legitimate Power
Reward and Coercive Power
If students behave as a teacher wishes because they like the person this is which power?
Referent Power
– In order for this to work there are two requirements: Teachers perception and student perception
When a teacher is given power as a result of their professional competence what kind of power is this?
Expert power
When students listen because the teacher is the teacher it is what kind of power?
Legitimate Power
Power based on the notions of learning is called what?
Reward and coercive power
What are the four most common reasons that students misbehave?
1 – Attention / obtain
2 – Avoidance / escape
3 – Power / control
4 – Self-regulation / sensory stimulation
Define a behavioural problem:
Any behaviour that interferes with the teaching act, the rights of others to learn, is psychologically or physically unsafe, or destroys property.
Define motivational problems:
Student difficulty in initiating, participating in, and/or persevering with learning or classroom activities
Why do motivational problems occur?
– Low self-confidence
– Low expectations of success
– Lack of interest in academics
– Achievement anxieties
– Fears of success or failure
What percentage of their time do classroom teachers spend addressing discipline problems?
Teachers who communicate their competence through mastery of the content material, use of motivating teaching techniques, clear expectations, and thorough class preparation is using which power base?
Expert power
When students behave because the teacher is the teacher this is what power base?
Legitimate power
When students behave because they do not want to have to deal with the consequences of not behaving this is what kind of power base?
Reward and Coercive power
When students view the teacher as a good person who is concerned about them, cares about their learning, and demands a certain type of behaviour because it is in their best interests, this is an example of what kind of power?
Referent power
What is teacher directed management?
the belief that students become good decision makers by internalizing rules and guidelines for behaviour that are provided by a responsible and caring teacher
What is person-centered classroom management?
the belief that person-centered practices are necessary to be successful must be embedded in an environment where all participants know that they are respected and valued
What is the collaborative management theory?
– based on the belief that the control of student behaviour is the joint responsibility of the student and the teacher
What is student-directed management?
Where the primary goal of schooling is to prepare for life in a democracy; students are allowed to make many decisions in a classroom.
What is backward design or design-down planning?
Begins with the end in mind, the enduring understanding, then moved further down the planning continuum
How does the textbook define a lesson?
The amount of instructional time required for a student to achieve a specific outcome.
Define self-efficacy:
An individual’s expectation of success at a particular task
What are the six principals outlined in the textbook that underlie the differentiation process?
1) Good curriculum comes first.
2) What in doubt, teach up. Ask students to stretch rather than teach at a lower level.
3) Ongoing assessment is crucial. Both formal and informal assessment tools should be utilized in order to assess student learning and to adjust teacher differentiation strategies.
4) Flexible groups are a critical factor
5) The emphasis should always be on student strengths.
6) Make expectations for student learning clear.
Define antecedents:
Preliminary courses of action that may increase the likelihood that appropriate behaviour will take place, or they may set the stage for the occurrence of misbehavior.
Define logical consequences:
outcomes that are directly related to the behaviour that required the teacher intervention to occur.
What are natural consequences?
Outcomes of behaviour that occur without teacher intervention.
What are forming skills?
An initial set of management skills that are helpful in getting groups up and running smoothly and effectively
What are functioning skills?
group-management skills aimed at controlling the types of interactions that occur among group members
What are formulating skills?
a set of behaviours that help students to process material mentally
What are fermenting skills?
a set of skills needed to resolve cognitive conflicts that arise within the group
What are surface behaviours?
the most common day-to-day disruptions, such as verbal interruptions, off-task behaviours, physical movement intended to disrupt, and disrespect.
Define proactive intervention skills:
When an instructor observes the start of, r even anticipates, inattentive behaviour she usually gives a non-intrusive action or verbal cue to indicate to a student or students that they are required to return quickly to the “task at hand”
Define behaviour modification:
A method that involves the use of stimuli through positive and negative reinforcement to change behaviours and reactions. B.F. Skinner is accredited with much of the theoretical work that he referred to as operant conditioning.
What is explicit redirection?
Consists of an order to stop the misbehaviour and to return to acceptable behaviour.
What is the broken record?
The use of repetition by a teacher to reinforce a direction to a student.
What are the three levels of the hierarchy for management intervention?
Level 1: Non-verbal intervention
Level 2: Verbal intervention
Level 3: Logical consequences
What are the three strategies under non-verbal intervention?
Planned ignoring
Signal interference
Proximity interference
Which is the most teacher centered level of the hierarchy for management intervention?
Level 3: Use of logical consequences
Which is the most student centered level of the hierarchy for management intervention?
Level 1: Non-verbal intervention
What are the twelve strategies under Level 2 of the hierarchy for management intervention discussed in class?
Hints: Adjacent (peer) reinforcement, Calling on student, humour

Questions: questioning awareness of effect

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Requests/Demands: “I Messages”, Direct appeal, positive phrasing, “Are not for”, reminder of rules, Glasser’s triplets, explicit redirection, and Canter’s “broken record”

What are the nine guidelines for verbal intervention discussed in chapter 8?
1) Use verbal intervention when non-verbal is inappropriate or ineffective
2) Keep verbal intervention private if possible
3) Make it as brief as possible
4) Speak to the situation, not the person
5) Set limits on behaviour, not feelings
6) Avoid sarcasm
7) Begin with a verbal intervention close to the student-centered end of the hierarchy
8) If necessary, move to a second verbal intervention technique closer to the teacher-centered end of the hierarchy
9) If two verbal intervention s have been used unsuccessfully, move to the application of consequences.
What are three types of ineffective verbal communication patterns?
1) Encouraging inappropriate behaviour
2) Focusing on irrelevant behaviours
3) Providing abstract, meaningless directions and predictions.
What is the cycle of discouragement?
often occurs when students suffer from low self-esteem and a low success-to-failuure ratio.
Define relationship building:
the conscious attempt by a teacher to build a positive relationship with students
What is self-monitoring?
student-directed approach; often effective with students who are trying to behave appropriately but need assistance to do so.
Define anecdotal record keeping:
The teacher records positive and negative classroom behaviour of a chronically disruptive student over a period of a few weeks
What is FAB?
A functional behaviour assessment: identifies the purpose that the behaviour serves either consciously or unconsciously, for the student; the antecedents that provoke the behaviour; and the consequences that maintain the behaviour.
What is behaviour contracting?
It involves the use of a written agreement, known as a behaviour contract, between the teacher and student.
What is a consultative team?
A team approach that facilitates group problem solving, offers a multidisciplinary perspective, and reduced the possibility that any one individual will become overburdened with a sense of responsibility for “the problem”.
What are the six signs or symptoms students may display discussed in the textbook that may indicate a serious problem?
1) Changed in physical appearance
2) Changes in activity level
3) Changes in personality
4) Changes in achievement status
5) Changed in health or physical abilities
6) Changes in socialization
What are 5 problems the book indicates parents should be contacted about?
1) Student displays unremitting misbehaviours after the teacher and the school have employed all available interventions.
2) When a consultative team decides the student needs a change in teacher or schedule.
When a consultative team decides that the student should be removed from a class for an extended period of time or from school for even one day.
4) When a consultative team decides that the student needs to be tested for learning, emotional, or physical difficulties.
5) When the consultative team decided that outside specialists such as psychiatrists, physicians, or social workers are required.