Man’s justification before God
Faith
“Justification by faith alone”
Words that changed Martin Luther’s lifeand course of history
Dark Ages
a period of time of nearly a thousandyears of spiritual darkness fell acrossEurope
Roman Catholic
religion that controlled Western Europe during the Dark Ages
As one __________ after anotheragainst the Moslems failed, peoplebegan to distrust the popesand lose faith in Roman Catholicism.

Crusade
Renaissance
reawakening of learning and knowledge
Old traditions of Roman Catholicism were__________ and tested during the Renaissance.
questioned
John Gutenburgprinted this first on a movable-type printing press
Bible
The invention of the printing press made ___available to the common person
reading and writing
The moral wickedness of the Renaissancelaid fertile ground for the _____________
Reformation
During the 1500’s Christian leaders attempted to restore a ___________ lifestyle
Biblical
I Corinthians 10:33
Even as I please all men in all things, not seking mine own profit but the profit of many, that theymay be saved.
Christians who were dissatisfied with many of the Roman Catholic teachings and leaders
Reformers
Reformers wanted to reestablish the Bibleas:
the only authority for any religious teaching and practice
Two reformers who were important in the developement of North American culture
Martin Luther and John Calvin
Scripture that Martin Luther usedthat justifies man before God byFaith
Romans 1 17
Roman Catholic leaders soldindulgences
this supposedly granted people forgiveness of sin
Dr. Luther nailed to the door of the Castle Church
ninety-five Thesesthat upheld what the Bible saysabout the forgiveness of sin
Dr. Luther’s followers
Protestants
Why did John Calvin take refuge
Persecution
Where did John Calvin take refuge?
Basel, Switzerland
What book did John Calvin write?
Institutes of the Christian Religion 
John Calvin stated
man was created”to honor and glorify the sovereign God and to enjoy Him forever.”
The teachings of John Calvin had a great influenceon American history because:
They helped mold the character of many menwho made American history.

Christians in France
Huguenots
Huguenots established a colony
in Florida before theSt. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
More than 10,000 Huguenots
Where killed in a massacre that lasted six weeksand sent survivors fleeing to other countries, including the New World.
“Father of New France”
Samuel de Champlain
The first patent
Sir Humprey Gilbert bythe Queen of England
First permanent English settlementin North America
Jamestown
Sir Walter Raleigh
sponsored several expeditions to Roanoke Island
London Company merchants
established acommunistic economic systemto make a profit
free enterprise
opposite of communism
John Smith
stopped the communistic system in Jamestown
Two important principles of success
;

  1. ownership of property and business
  2. the right to make a profit
Jamestown success:
;

  1.  colonists began raising a profitable crop
  2. colony became a community when families came
  3. London Company changed its land policy
  4. London Company gave each colonist a greater voice in the local government
Virginia House of Burgesses
was the first self-governing assemblyin America
Separatists
left the Church of England
Puritans
sought to purify the Church of Englandfrom within
Mayflower Compact
first written agreement for self-government of America
William Bradford
Plymouth Colony’s second governorafter John Carver died
1623 new land policy
instituted private ownership of propertyandindividual responsibility for the development of that property
Plymouth colony laid the foundation for:
free enterprise 
Free-enterprise system
Biblical because rewards, as well asresponsibilities, are givenon an individual basis
New Netherland
parts of present-day New York, New Jersey, andConnecticut
How did many Puritans come to America?
in a business enterprise for the Massachusetts Bay Company
followers of Martin Luther
Protestants
Christians in France
Huguenots
first written agreement for self-government in America
Mayflower Compact
Christians who had grown dissatisfied with Roman Catholic teachings
Reformers
Christians who wanted to purify the Church of England from within
Puritans
Christians who left the Church of England
Separatists
first self-governing assembly in America
Virginia House of Burgesses
founder of Hartford, Connecticut
Thomas Hooker
leader of Quakers who founded Pennsylvania
William Pen
founder of Rhode Island
Roger Williams
“Father of Massachusetts”
John Winthrop
received first patent from Queen of England
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
dropped the communistic system in Jamestown
John Smith
second governor of Plymouth Colony
William Bradford