Speech disorder
Difficulty producing sounds as well as disorders of voice quality
Language disorder
Difficulty receiving, understanding, and formulating ideas and information.

Receptive language disorder
difficulty receiving or understanding information
Expressive language disorder
difficulty formulating ideas and information
Incidence of communication disorders
18.8% of all students receiving special education
Inclusion of students with communication disorders
Most spend most of their time in the regular classroom
the oral expression of language
structured, shared, rule-governed, symbolic system for communicating
use of sounds to make meaningful syllables and words
system that governs the structure of words
provides rules for putting together a series of words to form sentences
meaning of what is expressed
use of communication in contexts; the overall organizer for language
Social interaction theories
emphasize that communication skills are learned through social interactions
speaker’s production of individual or sequenced sounds
Substitution articulation error
when one substitues one sound for another
Omission articulation error
when one leaves out a phoneme
Addition articulation error
when one adds an additional phoneme to a word
Distortion articulation error
modifications of a production of a phoneme in a word; lisp
motor speech disorder that affects the way in which a student plans to produce speech
Pitch (voice)
Determined by rate of vibration in the vocal folds
Duration (voice)
length of time any speech sound requires
Intensity (voice)
Based on perception of listener by air; determined by air pressure coming f rom the lungs
Resonance (voice)
perceived quality of someone’s voice
when air cannot pass through the nose and comes through the mouth instead
when air is allowed to pass through nasal cavity more often than it should
fluent speech
smooth, flows well, appears to be effortless
Phonology disorders
unable to discriminate differences in speech sounds or sound segments
Morhpology disorders
difficulties with using the structure of words to get or give information
Syntax disorders
errors involving word disorder
Pragmatics disorders
ex. when a student talks for a long time and does not allow anyone else to speak
Articulation & apraxia assessment
evaluate a student’s abilities to produce speech sounds in single words, sentences, and conversation
Voice assessments
include info about onset and course of voice problem
Fluency assessment
measures amount and type of dysfluency
AAC devices
augmentative and alternative communication system consisting of two components: a symbol set and a means for selecting the symbols
UDL-Communication disorders
Using audio ; text formats; varying teaching medium
System for Augmenting LAnguage
-Uses an AAC to augment naturally occurring communications
Traumatic brain injury
an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force
Open head injury
penetrates the bones of the skull allowing bacteria to have contact with the brain
Closed head injury
results from an external blow causing the brain to rub the skull’s interior
Prevalence of traumatic rain injuries
0.03% in schools receiving special education
Percentage of students w/ a mild TBI
Males vs. females w/ TBI
Males twice as likely as males to get it
Characteristics of TBI
will differ with severity and length of coma
TBI recuperation
Cognition often improves with rehabilitation
Cognitive changes of TBI
-Problems w/ attention & memory-Disruptions in higher-order social cognition tasts-Disruptions in executive functioning associated w/ reasoning
Communication changes with TBI
10%-20% have difficulty with central auditory processing which involves the ability to track conversations
Behavior & TBI
Students w/ TBI are 3x more likely to develop serious problem behavior
four major causes of TBI
Accidents, falls, violence-related incidents, & recreational injuries
Computerized (axial) tomography
-Uses x-rays to show cross-section of brain & skull
Magnetic Resonance Imaginc
Uses a strong magnetic field to providde detailed pictures of brain
Maps brain activity by monitoring metabolic changes
Positron emission tomography
Produces 3-d pix based on recording a radioactive chem injected in body
Test of problem solving-elementary, revised
focuses on problem-solving skills
Cognitive retraining
involves instruction to recapture lost skills like processing info, communication, & socialization
Solving a problem
1) Problem identification2) Problem definition3) Solution generation
a hearing impairment so severe student is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing
Deaf threshhold
Had hearing loss of 70-90db
Hard of hearing threshhold
Hearing loss in the 20-70db range
Outer ear
-Consists of auricle & ear canal-Collects sound waves & funnels them
Middle ear
Ossicular chain – malleus, incus, & stapes
houses actual organ of hearing and vestibular mechanism
Organ of hearing
Organ of Corti
Vestibular mechanism
Sensory organ of balance
Speech reading
Reading facial features to discern speech
Auditory-verbal format
encourages early identification adn subsequent amplification or cochlear implants
Oral/aural format
Emphasizes the use of amplified sound to develop oral laguage, allowing use of speech reading to augment info
Manual communication
Sign language/fingerspelling
Cued speech
Intended to make facial features fully visible
Genetic causes of hearing loss
80% from inherited recessive gene
Lack of oxygen before birth; cause of deafness
Prenatal infections that cause hearing loss
Toxoplasmosis, herpes virus, syphilis, and cytomegalovirus
Doctor who specializes in diseases of the ear
Cochlear implant
Electronic device surgically implanted under the skin behind the ear that simulates hearing
Sound-field amplification system
teacher transmits her voice using a microphone & cieling-mounted speakers
Criteria for gifted students
No single national definition; unclear to categorize #s of gifted
Gifted students & diversity
Underrepresentation of minorities (not Asians)
surpasses unusual promise to being unmistakably extraordinary
Giftedness and leadership
15 states include it in their definitions of giftedness
Four areas of creativity
Intuitive, affective, physical/sensing, rational
Giftedness and behavior
Some behave well, some behave poorly; many have unquenchable curiosity which can distract class
a reliable, validated assessment for identifying giftedness in students from diverse backgrounds
involves a gened teacher and specialist in another field
Moving students rapidly through standard sequence of curriculum by having the skip a course or grade
Compact the curriciulum
pretesting student then leaving out portions student already knows