States the purpose of the Constitution
Article I
Legislative branch
Article II
Executive branch
Article III
Judicial branch
Article IV
Relations among the States
Article V
Amending the Constitution
Article VI
National debts, supremacy of national law
Article VII
Ratifying the Constitution
Six Basis Principles
Popular Sovereignty
Limited Government
Separation of Powers
Checks and Balances
Judical Review
Power divided between central and regional governments
Judicial Review
The power of the courts to determine whether what government does is in accord with what the Constitution provides
Checks and Balances
Each branch of government is subject to a number of constitutional checks by the other branches.
Separation of Powers
Power of the government is divided into the three branches
Limited Government
No government is all powerful
Popular Sovereignty
Government gets its power from the people
Formal Amendment Process
Who can propose an amendment?
1. Proposed by 2/3 vote of Congress-

2. Proposed at national convention called by 2/3(34) of the State Legislatures

Formal amendment Process
Who can ratify an amendment?
1. Ratified by the State legislatures of 3/4 (38) states

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2. Ratified by convention held in 3/4(38)of the States

Bill of Rights
First 10 Amendments
First Amendment
Freedom of Speech, Religion, Assembly, press, and petition
Amendment 2
Rights to bear arms
Amendment 3
No quartering of troops
Amendment 4
Every person should be secure against unreasonable search and seizure
Amendment 5
No double jeopardy
Amendment 6
speedy and public trial
Right to a lawyer
Amendment 7
Right to trial by jury
Amendment 8
No cruel and unusual punishment
Amendment 9
Power retained by the people
Amendment 10
Powers retained by the states and the poeple
Amendment 12
Election of Senators by popular vote
Slave Amendments
13-freed slaves
14- former slaves receive citizenship
15-Black men get right to vote
Amendment 16
Income Tax
Amendment 17
Popular election of Senators
Relationship between 18 and 21st amendment
18-prohibition and Amendment 21 repealed prohibition
Amendment 19
women’s right to vote
Amendment 22
President-2-4year terms or 10 years
Amendment 23
Citizens of D.C. can vote for President
Amendment 24
No poll tax
Amendment 25
Presidential succession
Vice-President becomes President in case of death or resignation
Amendment 26
18 year olds get the vote
Amendment 27
Congressional Pay
Types of informal amendments
1.Basic Legislation (laws)
2. Executive Action-i.e. treaty
3. Court Decisions-i.e. Brown vs Board of Education
4. Party Practice (nominationing Candidate)
5. Custom-(President’s Cabinet
How many amendments are in the Constitution
Some Powers of Legislative Branch
Create lower Federal Courts, Declare War, establish post offices, copyrights and patents,coin money,provide for and maintain armed forces (See Article 1 for more)
President who caused the 22nd amendment to be passed
Franklin Roosevelt
(elected 4 times)
How were 26 of the 27 amendments proposed and ratified?
Proposed by 2/3 vote in each house of Congress and ratified by 3/4 of the State Legislatures.
21st amendment done in a different way. It was proposed by Congress and ratified by convention
Electoral College
The group that makes the formal selection of the nation’s Pesident
Advisory body to the President
Executive agreement
A pact made by the President directly with the head of a foreign state
A formal agreement between two or more sovereign states
Rule of Law
No one is above the law
; Accusation of a Federal Official by the House of Representatives
Three parts of the Constitution
Four powers granted to Congress by the Constitution
Establish post offices and roads
Tax, borrow money
Coin money/maintain military force
Declare War
Executive agreement
A pact made by the PResident directly with the head of a foreigh state; a binding international agreement with the force of law but which does not require senate consent.
False and malicious use of spoken words
False and malicious use of printed words
Due Process of Law
The government must act fairly
Poll taxes
A tax that must be paid before voting
Electoral College
Chose everty 4 years and formally elect President and Vice-President
Order for succession tfor the PResidency
Speaker of the House
President Pro-Tempore of Senate
Secretary of State
What happens in the case of presidential disability? What amendment covers this?
Sections 3-4 of 25th Amendment.; Vice becomes Acting President if
President informs Congress, in writing that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office or (2) Vice President and majority of the members of the Cabinet inform Congress, in writing, that the president is so incapacitated.
When does Congress begin?
Changed by 20th amendment in 1933.; The start is ;noon of the 3rd day of January.;
What is the relationship between Franklin Roosevelt and the 22nd amendment?
2 terms or 10 years/Roosevelt was elected to 4 terms.
Implied Powers
Those delegated powers of the National Government that are suggested by the expressed powers;those;necessary and proper; to carry out the expressed powers (elastic clause).
Reserved Powers
Those powers that the Constitution does not grant to the national government; and does not, at the same time, deny to the states.
Eminent domain
Power of the government to take private property for public use
Congressonal Immunity
Members of Congress cannot be arrested going to or coming from a session of Congress.
What are the Civil Rights (Slave) Amendments?
13, 14, 15
Article IV
Relations among the states
Formal method of ratification of Constitution

Propsed-Congress 2/3 vote in both Houses
National convention When requested by 2/3 State legislatures

3/4 State legislatures (38)
Conventions in 3/4 (38) States


Two appointed Vice-Presidents
Nelson Rockerfeller
Gerald Ford