• Psychological and philosophical perspective contending that individuals form or construct much of what they learn and understand
  • Learners create their own learning
  • Knowledge is formed inside of people.
  • produce knowledge based on their beliefs and experiences in situations
Jean Piaget Theory of Cognitive Development
Lev Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development
Constructivist Assumptions
  • People are active learners and will develop knowledge for themselves
  • students should study a concept from multiple perspectives
  • Teachers should structure situations so that learners are actively involved with the content
Exogenus Constructivism
  • The acquisition of knowledge represents a reconstruction of the external world.
  • The world influences beliefs through experiences, exposure to models, and teaching.
  • Knowledge is accurate to the extent it reflects external reality.
  • Knowledge derives from previously acquired knowledge and not directly from environmental interactions.
  • Knowledge is not a mirror of the external world; rather, it develops through cognitive abstraction.
Dialectical;(or Cognitive;Constructivism)
  • Knowledge derives from interactions between persons and their environments.
  • Constructions are not invariably tied to the external world nor wholly the workings of the mind.
  • Rather, knowledge reflects the outcomes of mental contradictions that result from one’s interactions with the environment.
Situated Cognition
  • the relationship between a person and a situation; cognitive processes do not reside solely in one’s mind.
  • thinking and learning are situated in physical and social context
  • many processes interact to produce learning
  • motivation and instructoin are linked–>good instruction raises learner’s motivation
Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
  • emphasizes the soical environment as a faciliator of develpoment and learning
  • emphasizes socially meaningful activity as an important influence on human consciousness
  • stresses the interaction of interpersonal, cultural/historical, and individual factors as the key to human development
  • illuminates the point that learning and development cannot be dissociated from their context
Applications of Constructivism
  • helping students acquire mediators through the social environment
  • Scaffolding is the process of controlling task elements that are beyond the learner’s capabilities so that they can focus on and  master those features of the taks they can grasp quickly
  • reciprocal teaching: both take turns being the teacher
  • Peer collaboration
Private Speech
  • set of speech phenomenal that has a self-regulatory functoin but is not socially communicative
  • verbalization is more likely to promote student achievement if it is relevant to the task and does not interfere with performance.
Socially Mediated Learning
all learning is mediated by tools such as language, symbols, and signs
Contextual Factors
involves individuals constructing theories about themselves, others, andtheir environments.