CORRUPTIONDefinitionHow to define Corruption?There is no single,comprehensive, universally accepted definition of corruption. Attempts todevelop such a definition invariably encounter legal, criminological andpolitical problems. Moreover, various defined forms of corruption and corruptpractices keep evolving and new forms keep sprouting up making it difficult andrather unpractical to limit it to only one definition.
Bearing this difficultyin mind writers usually go for operational approach instead of seeking todefine corruption in generic terms. For our ease, the word “corruption” comes from the Latin verb “corruptus” (to break); it literally means broken object.Conceptually, corruption is a form of behaviour, which departs from ethics,morality, tradition, law and civic virtue. Anyhow, corruption can be definedas:-“Corruption is behaviour which deviates from the formal duties of apublic role because of private-regarding (close family, personal, privateclique) pecuniary or status gains; or violates rules against the exercise ofcertain types of private-regarding influence”1 (Nye, 1967)Corruptionevolves such behaviour on the part of office holders in the public or privatesector whereby they unlawfully and improperly enrich themselves and/or thoseclose to them, or induce others to do so by misusing the position in which theyare placed.Corruption is amoral wrong, a universal sin condemned in all societies and religions yet itexists all over the world. It is increasingly becoming a way of life and partof culture thus more and more impossible to contain.
Reforms are failing a deafears and almost every country suffering this problem.Causes of CorruptionFollowing may bethe major causes of corruption generally and specifically in Pakistan.a) Abuseof power:Flagrant and unlawful abuse of power by the public orprivate office holders increases the corruption more rapidly than any otherreason. Whenever any office holder or even a common man cross limit of his power,he’s actually involving himself in corruption. This abuse of power is common inhigh officials.b) Lackof combating operations:Lack of serious programme of combating corruption in thecountries. The investigative agencies and related departments could not developas per the aspirations of the public.c) Properethical and business standards:Elected government become fail to develop proper ethical andbusiness standards for the public and private sectors.
Lack of set-standardsallow culprits to do their work freely.d) Lackof transparency:Lack of transparency in the government’s decision makingprocess increases frustration among general public and they try to achievetheir goal by any mean.e) LengthyProcedures:Lengthy and cumbersome procedures of government departmentsand executive system is also an increasing factor of corruption. Public wanttheir issues to be solve as quickly as possible.f) WeakJudicial System:Pakistan’s judicial system is slow as well as weak in manyaspects. A corrupt man is not bring under law. If by chance Police catch himand appeals in court, process is too slow and weak that corrupt man can easilymake himself free.
Unless the system of Judiciary is reviewed, corruption will notstop making new records.g) Poorsalary structure:Poor salary structure in public sector is also a big factorof increasing amount of corruption. This problem often discuss by Policedepartment. However in any institution handsome salary package and otheremployee’s benefits are very much demanding now a days to keep the internalenvironment of the institution clean from bribery and corruption.
Reputation of institutions among Public:The latest surveyreport of The Transparency Internationalsuggests quite interesting (not unexpected though) results about corruptionand people trust on their institutions.Few of themdiscussed below.Bribery rate in world:According to latestSurvey report, every one of the four men (in an average) paid bribe when wentto Public Office in the 12 months prior to when the question was asked. Government Performance:So, most of thepeople think that their government is not doing well in fighting againstcorruption. Government has failed in most of the countries, to deliver whatthey expected to be delivered. Citizen’s Opinion:The good news ismore than half the people around the world – and particularly young people –agreed that citizens of the country could make a difference.
58% of people aged24 and under said they feel empowered to make a difference. 58% of those aged55 also agreed.Most Corrupt institution:However, Policeand elected officials were regarded as the most corrupt institution by thepeople more than for any othergroup or institution when questioned. How Much Corrupt Institutions Are?2Chart shows percentage of respondents who answered thateither “Most” or “All” of the institutions are corrupt. Faces of corruptionCorruption can be seen in society indaily life. When talk about the country where government institutions, privatebusinesses, judiciary, political parties, all are corrupt in either way. Howeverfew departments which are an important part of the government’s organizationalstructure are listed below with the type of corruption in which they areinvolve.a) ThepoliceOur police department is very much notorious in this regard.
They extort money from poor to as much extent as much they can. Receiving bribesfrom the guilty person who is wealthy and of some higher class is common.Whenever someone poor appears for the FIR report against the elite class theyhave to face many twists and problems. The police department is very much involvedin talking BHATTA from drug dealers, prostitutions, vendors, videos shopsowners and encroachers.
b) TrafficPoliceTraffic police patronizes the traffic mafia. Traffic policeallow violations of traffic laws. Traffic police is very much lenient in checkingillegal vehicles. They also take bribe and allow overloading. They also issuefake licenses to known people.c) LawyersLawyers enjoy good relations with police officials who sendculprit families to them when some arrests are made. Most lawyers have links withjudges of courts to get bails for the accused from whom they have taken bribe.
Lawyersare very much involved in eating tax and also tell people how to evade taxes.d) DoctorsThe medical department is also not free from corruption. Themedical legal officers (MLO) issue distorted medical reports. Government medicaldoctors have proved themselves very much lazy and don’t work at hospitals. Theytend to advice the patients to visit them privately instead. They sellmedicines outside the hospitals and embezzle grants.e) JournalistsThe journalists print stories to boost or destroy peoples’images by taking money from others. They accept favours like plot allotments, governmentvehicles, jobs and free trips abroad.
They work for police and intelligenceagencies and publish stories on their instructions. They blackmail the politicians,traders and industrialists.f) Professorsand teachersThey make money while invigilating the examinations by helpingand supporting the students during exams. They give opportunities to the examineesto cheat.
They leak papers before important examinations. They don’t work atschools and colleges and force students to take private tuitions, at highestauthorityg) PublicdepartmentsThey take fixed commissions on development schemes. Publicfunds from the government are embezzled.
They favour contractors to get moremoney. They also allow the usage of substandard material in the developmentalprojects. They extend a share of te booty upto the highest authority.h) CantonmentsboardsThe board authorities allow the construction of many illegalshops, buildings and plazas in return of money.i) Passportand immigration officialsThey people involved in these departments forge visas. Theyalso change passports to send people to various countries illegally. They allowentry to illegal immigrants.
j) Businessmenand TradersBusinessmen and traders have great hand in promotingcorruption. They evade taxes. They hoard commodities and also sell substandardmaterial. They violate labour laws and blackmail the government for personalbenefits. They black money for bribe and business and bribe civil servants andpoliticians.k) CustomsofficialsAllow the entry of smuggled products. They have dep linkswith drug dealers. They charge less duty from importers and in return takeheavy bribes.
They run smuggling rackets through sea and airways.l) WapdaofficialsThey give illegal power connections. They protectelectricity thieves ranging from major industrialists to minor subscribers.
Theyalso embezzle funds and grants and take commissions on projects.m) Civiladministration officialsThey grossly misappropriate social welfare and developmentfunds. They accept bribes to process files or do genuine public work. Theymisuse powers and are nepotistic patronize various mafias. They also do illegalacts to please politicians.n) Armedforce officialsThey take commissions while purchasing aircrafts,submarines, ships and imported ammunitions. In civilian setups, they indulge inall the corruptions that civilians do.
o) Exciseand taxation officialsThey protect tax evaders. They also take for favourable tax assessmentson production and retail level.p) Anti-corruptionofficialsThey let corrupt officers go Scot free. They blackmail themto take money from them.
They threaten them for personal gains and benefits.They give wrong direction to inquiries under process.q) ElectedrepresentativeElected representatives misuse their authority and power.They embezzle development funds. They take bribes for accomplishing any legalor illegal work.
They gather vast amount of money and launder the money fromthe country to abroad. They indulge in horse trading and getting variouscommissions on many developmental schemes.r) AccountantGeneral OfficialsAccountant general officials squeeze money from retiredgovernment officials for releasing provident funds, gratuity and pension. Theydo a great miss handling of public accounts.s) OilsellersOil sellers mix substandard oil in refined oil. They sell itat higher prices. They fuel station owners and manipulate for over charges. Effects of corruptionCorruption is authority plus monopoly minus transparency.
Oursociety has this grave problem of corruption and it has weakened ourfoundations very much. Corruption is such a serious problem which is a kind ofdisaster to living but is considered as some unnatural calamity. It’s actinglike a cancer which is eating up our economic system very rapidly.The most top rated and major reason for corruption today ispolitical instability.
The other reasons include lack of accountability, improperworking of lawful institutions and unemployment.There is no doubt that corruption has wide ranging effectsall around but the most affected community is the poor. Corruption has hinderedthe economic system, undermined the good governance and failed the goodgovernance of the state. Some top leading effects on our society by corruptionare as under.Power sectorThe power sector has affected greatly. There is a greatshortage of power and the country is facing a lot of problems. Industries havebeen affected greatly.Tax and CustomsDue to corruption less tax is being deposited to thenational treasure.
Also sometimes officials of tax and custom department alsofound involved in corruptionLaw enforcementThe quality of law enforcement has been lessened to a greatextent. Which is not a good omen at all.JudiciaryOur judiciary system has proved itself very much biased. Andit’s all due to corruption.
People are unable to get justice.A petitioner waits for many years to get its right ofjustice.HealthHealth system of our society has been greatly affected. Thereis no proper treatment available for the people. No of deaths due to low healthare increasing. Deadly diseases are also becoming prevalent in our society.EducationEducation system has fallen to the lowest of the levels.
Noproper schools colleges and infrastructure is being built due to lack offindings which are eaten up by higher authorities. The illiteracy has increasedin our society. Survey on Causes of CorruptioniSurveyon causes of corruption is as under.
Lack of accountability 31.68% Low salaries 16.54% Monopoly of Power 16.48% Discretionary of power 12.61% Lack of transparency 9.97% Power of Tapism 4.28% Power of influential people 4.59% Others 4.
9% CORRUPTION AROUND GLOBENo doubt the whole world has been the victim of corruption. Corruptionis being done everywhere in every field of life around the world. It has proveda great danger to the world’s existence. Economic system has been crashedsignificantly and the power and wealth has been shifted to a few people only.
Theno of the poor people are increasing day by day. This thing has led to greatmany problems and anarchy all around us.According to worlds TransparencyInternational Report the most corrupt countries to least corrupt countriescan be categorized as under.From top to bottom the list tells about least to mostcorrupt nations Country Ranking Denmark 1 New Zealand 1 Finland 3 Sweden 4 Switzerland 5 Norway 6 Singapore 7 Netherland 8 Canada 9 Germany 10 United Kingdom 10 Australia 12 Belgium 13 Austria 14 United states 15 Ireland 16 Japan 17 Uruguay 18 Estonia 19 France 20 Pakistan’s ranking (1998-2018)Comparatively Pakistan’s ranking has been decreased. Defeating CorruptionThough corruption is very much deep rooted and it’s too muchdifficult to eradicate such evil yet nothing is impossible to achieve.
It mightbe a time taking process but if we work harder we can get our goal somedaysoon.What simply we are to do is to say NO to corruptionFollowing methods can be very much helpful in this regard.a) Functioningof Anti-Corruption institutions It’s our duty to cooperate with National AccountabilityBureau to eradicate corruption from the society.b) Properworking of InstitutionsThe anti-corruptiondepartments should work properly and efficiently to achieve their targetsagainst corruption. They corrupt people working in the anti-corruptiondepartments should also be considered in top checklist. There should nt remainany kind of ambiguity in any body’s mind that he or she may be spared due totheir criminal acts. The institutions should be so much advanced that everyrequired work may be performed so quickly and efficiently that no one may getany chance to dodge or escape from their deeds.
c) JudiciarysystemsOur judiciary system should be so much strong that it no oneshould dare challenge its decisions. It’s the responsibility of the judges tobring the culprits to absolute justice in a proper way. It’s theirresponsibility to make very much just decisions out of any differences of cast,colour or creed. Only then the war against such evil can be won in an absoluteand a proper way.d) Whitecollar SystemAs for as there is a white collar system in our country, theeradication of corruption will be only a myth. Necessary steps should be takento remove white collar system from or society.Favouritism and “standardsetting” for anyone must be remove from the organizations in order to gainstability.1 (Nye, 1967)2 (GLOBAL CORRUPTION BAROMETER: CITIZENS’ VOICES FROM AROUND THE WORLD, 2017)i NACS-NAB government of Pakistan.