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How to define Corruption?

There is no single,
comprehensive, universally accepted definition of corruption. Attempts to
develop such a definition invariably encounter legal, criminological and
political problems. Moreover, various defined forms of corruption and corrupt
practices keep evolving and new forms keep sprouting up making it difficult and
rather unpractical to limit it to only one definition. Bearing this difficulty
in mind writers usually go for operational approach instead of seeking to
define corruption in generic terms. For our ease, the word “corruption” comes from the Latin verb “corruptus” (to break); it literally means broken object.
Conceptually, corruption is a form of behaviour, which departs from ethics,
morality, tradition, law and civic virtue. Anyhow, corruption can be defined

“Corruption is behaviour which deviates from the formal duties of a
public role because of private-regarding (close family, personal, private
clique) pecuniary or status gains; or violates rules against the exercise of
certain types of private-regarding influence”1 (Nye, 1967)

evolves such behaviour on the part of office holders in the public or private
sector whereby they unlawfully and improperly enrich themselves and/or those
close to them, or induce others to do so by misusing the position in which they
are placed.

Corruption is a
moral wrong, a universal sin condemned in all societies and religions yet it
exists all over the world. It is increasingly becoming a way of life and part
of culture thus more and more impossible to contain. Reforms are failing a deaf
ears and almost every country suffering this problem.

Causes of Corruption

Following may be
the major causes of corruption generally and specifically in Pakistan.

a)    Abuse
of power:

Flagrant and unlawful abuse of power by the public or
private office holders increases the corruption more rapidly than any other
reason. Whenever any office holder or even a common man cross limit of his power,
he’s actually involving himself in corruption. This abuse of power is common in
high officials.

b)   Lack
of combating operations:

Lack of serious programme of combating corruption in the
countries. The investigative agencies and related departments could not develop
as per the aspirations of the public.

c)    Proper
ethical and business standards:

Elected government become fail to develop proper ethical and
business standards for the public and private sectors. Lack of set-standards
allow culprits to do their work freely.

d)   Lack
of transparency:

Lack of transparency in the government’s decision making
process increases frustration among general public and they try to achieve
their goal by any mean.

e)    Lengthy

Lengthy and cumbersome procedures of government departments
and executive system is also an increasing factor of corruption. Public want
their issues to be solve as quickly as possible.

f)      Weak
Judicial System:

Pakistan’s judicial system is slow as well as weak in many
aspects. A corrupt man is not bring under law. If by chance Police catch him
and appeals in court, process is too slow and weak that corrupt man can easily
make himself free. Unless the system of Judiciary is reviewed, corruption will not
stop making new records.

g)    Poor
salary structure:

Poor salary structure in public sector is also a big factor
of increasing amount of corruption. This problem often discuss by Police
department. However in any institution handsome salary package and other
employee’s benefits are very much demanding now a days to keep the internal
environment of the institution clean from bribery and corruption.


Reputation of institutions among Public:

The latest survey
report of The Transparency International
suggests quite interesting (not unexpected though) results about corruption
and people trust on their institutions.

Few of them
discussed below.

Bribery rate in world:

According to latest
Survey report, every one of the four men (in an average) paid bribe when went
to Public Office in the 12 months prior to when the question was asked.


Government Performance:

So, most of the
people think that their government is not doing well in fighting against
corruption. Government has failed in most of the countries, to deliver what
they expected to be delivered.


Citizen’s Opinion:

The good news is
more than half the people around the world – and particularly young people –
agreed that citizens of the country could make a difference. 58% of people aged
24 and under said they feel empowered to make a difference. 58% of those aged
55 also agreed.

Most Corrupt institution:

However, Police
and elected officials were regarded as the most corrupt institution by the
people more than for any other
group or institution when questioned.


How Much Corrupt Institutions Are?

2Chart shows percentage of respondents who answered that
either “Most” or “All” of the institutions are corrupt.



Faces of corruption

Corruption can be seen in society in
daily life. When talk about the country where government institutions, private
businesses, judiciary, political parties, all are corrupt in either way. However
few departments which are an important part of the government’s organizational
structure are listed below with the type of corruption in which they are

a)    The

Our police department is very much notorious in this regard.
They extort money from poor to as much extent as much they can. Receiving bribes
from the guilty person who is wealthy and of some higher class is common.
Whenever someone poor appears for the FIR report against the elite class they
have to face many twists and problems. The police department is very much involved
in talking BHATTA from drug dealers, prostitutions, vendors, videos shops
owners and encroachers.

b)   Traffic

Traffic police patronizes the traffic mafia. Traffic police
allow violations of traffic laws. Traffic police is very much lenient in checking
illegal vehicles. They also take bribe and allow overloading. They also issue
fake licenses to known people.

c)    Lawyers

Lawyers enjoy good relations with police officials who send
culprit families to them when some arrests are made. Most lawyers have links with
judges of courts to get bails for the accused from whom they have taken bribe. Lawyers
are very much involved in eating tax and also tell people how to evade taxes.

d)   Doctors

The medical department is also not free from corruption. The
medical legal officers (MLO) issue distorted medical reports. Government medical
doctors have proved themselves very much lazy and don’t work at hospitals. They
tend to advice the patients to visit them privately instead. They sell
medicines outside the hospitals and embezzle grants.

e)    Journalists

The journalists print stories to boost or destroy peoples’
images by taking money from others. They accept favours like plot allotments, government
vehicles, jobs and free trips abroad. They work for police and intelligence
agencies and publish stories on their instructions. They blackmail the politicians,
traders and industrialists.

f)      Professors
and teachers

They make money while invigilating the examinations by helping
and supporting the students during exams. They give opportunities to the examinees
to cheat. They leak papers before important examinations. They don’t work at
schools and colleges and force students to take private tuitions, at highest

g)    Public

They take fixed commissions on development schemes. Public
funds from the government are embezzled. They favour contractors to get more
money. They also allow the usage of substandard material in the developmental
projects. They extend a share of te booty upto the highest authority.

h)   Cantonments

The board authorities allow the construction of many illegal
shops, buildings and plazas in return of money.

i)      Passport
and immigration officials

They people involved in these departments forge visas. They
also change passports to send people to various countries illegally. They allow
entry to illegal immigrants.

j)      Businessmen
and Traders

Businessmen and traders have great hand in promoting
corruption. They evade taxes. They hoard commodities and also sell substandard
material. They violate labour laws and blackmail the government for personal
benefits. They black money for bribe and business and bribe civil servants and

k)    Customs

Allow the entry of smuggled products. They have dep links
with drug dealers. They charge less duty from importers and in return take
heavy bribes. They run smuggling rackets through sea and airways.

l)      Wapda

They give illegal power connections. They protect
electricity thieves ranging from major industrialists to minor subscribers. They
also embezzle funds and grants and take commissions on projects.

m) Civil
administration officials

They grossly misappropriate social welfare and development
funds. They accept bribes to process files or do genuine public work. They
misuse powers and are nepotistic patronize various mafias. They also do illegal
acts to please politicians.

n)   Armed
force officials

They take commissions while purchasing aircrafts,
submarines, ships and imported ammunitions. In civilian setups, they indulge in
all the corruptions that civilians do.

o)    Excise
and taxation officials

They protect tax evaders. They also take for favourable tax assessments
on production and retail level.

p)   Anti-corruption

They let corrupt officers go Scot free. They blackmail them
to take money from them. They threaten them for personal gains and benefits.
They give wrong direction to inquiries under process.

q)   Elected

Elected representatives misuse their authority and power.
They embezzle development funds. They take bribes for accomplishing any legal
or illegal work. They gather vast amount of money and launder the money from
the country to abroad. They indulge in horse trading and getting various
commissions on many developmental schemes.

r)     Accountant
General Officials

Accountant general officials squeeze money from retired
government officials for releasing provident funds, gratuity and pension. They
do a great miss handling of public accounts.

s)     Oil

Oil sellers mix substandard oil in refined oil. They sell it
at higher prices. They fuel station owners and manipulate for over charges.


Effects of corruption

Corruption is authority plus monopoly minus transparency. Our
society has this grave problem of corruption and it has weakened our
foundations very much. Corruption is such a serious problem which is a kind of
disaster to living but is considered as some unnatural calamity. It’s acting
like a cancer which is eating up our economic system very rapidly.

The most top rated and major reason for corruption today is
political instability. The other reasons include lack of accountability, improper
working of lawful institutions and unemployment.

There is no doubt that corruption has wide ranging effects
all around but the most affected community is the poor. Corruption has hindered
the economic system, undermined the good governance and failed the good
governance of the state. Some top leading effects on our society by corruption
are as under.

Power sector

The power sector has affected greatly. There is a great
shortage of power and the country is facing a lot of problems. Industries have
been affected greatly.

Tax and Customs

Due to corruption less tax is being deposited to the
national treasure. Also sometimes officials of tax and custom department also
found involved in corruption

Law enforcement

The quality of law enforcement has been lessened to a great
extent.  Which is not a good omen at all.


Our judiciary system has proved itself very much biased. And
it’s all due to corruption. People are unable to get justice.

A petitioner waits for many years to get its right of


Health system of our society has been greatly affected. There
is no proper treatment available for the people. No of deaths due to low health
are increasing. Deadly diseases are also becoming prevalent in our society.


Education system has fallen to the lowest of the levels. No
proper schools colleges and infrastructure is being built due to lack of
findings which are eaten up by higher authorities. The illiteracy has increased
in our society.



Survey on Causes of Corruption

on causes of corruption is as under.

of accountability




of Power


of power


of transparency


of Tapism


of influential people






No doubt the whole world has been the victim of corruption. Corruption
is being done everywhere in every field of life around the world. It has proved
a great danger to the world’s existence. Economic system has been crashed
significantly and the power and wealth has been shifted to a few people only. The
no of the poor people are increasing day by day. This thing has led to great
many problems and anarchy all around us.

According to worlds Transparency
International Report the most corrupt countries to least corrupt countries
can be categorized as under.

From top to bottom the list tells about least to most
corrupt nations













































Pakistan’s ranking (1998-2018)

Comparatively Pakistan’s ranking has been decreased.


Defeating Corruption

Though corruption is very much deep rooted and it’s too much
difficult to eradicate such evil yet nothing is impossible to achieve. It might
be a time taking process but if we work harder we can get our goal someday

What simply we are to do is to say NO to corruption

Following methods can be very much helpful in this regard.

a)    Functioning
of Anti-Corruption institutions

It’s our duty to cooperate with National Accountability
Bureau to eradicate corruption from the society.

b)   Proper
working of Institutions

The anti-corruption
departments should work properly and efficiently to achieve their targets
against corruption. They corrupt people working in the anti-corruption
departments should also be considered in top checklist. There should nt remain
any kind of ambiguity in any body’s mind that he or she may be spared due to
their criminal acts. The institutions should be so much advanced that every
required work may be performed so quickly and efficiently that no one may get
any chance to dodge or escape from their deeds.

c)    Judiciary

Our judiciary system should be so much strong that it no one
should dare challenge its decisions. It’s the responsibility of the judges to
bring the culprits to absolute justice in a proper way. It’s their
responsibility to make very much just decisions out of any differences of cast,
colour or creed. Only then the war against such evil can be won in an absolute
and a proper way.

d)   White
collar System

As for as there is a white collar system in our country, the
eradication of corruption will be only a myth. Necessary steps should be taken
to remove white collar system from or society.

Favouritism and “standard
setting” for anyone must be remove from the organizations in order to gain

1 (Nye, 1967)


i NACS-NAB government of Pakistan.