Contruct Validity 

– Construct validity is concerned with the extent to which the instrument measures some psychological trait or construct.


  •  these are things like intelligence, shyness, it cant be observe, it comes from theories, research or observations. 
  • Broader than criterion and content validity. 

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Test-Retest Reliability

A method for determining the reliability of a test by administering it two or more times.    

Nominal Scale 

A scale of measurement characterized by assigning numbers to name or represent mutually exclusive groups (e.g., 1=male, 2=female)

Ordinal Scale 

Type of measurement scale in which the degree of magnitude is indicated by the rank ordering the data.    

Interval Scale
A type of measurement scale in which the units are in equal intervals.  Many of the statistics used to evaluate an instrument’s psychometric qualities require an interval scale.    
Ratio Scale 

A scale of measurement that has both interval data and a meaningful zero (e.g., weight, height).  Because ratio scales have a meaningful zero, ratio interpretations can be made.    

Measures of Central Tendency    

Mean – average

Median – middle number

Mode – most frequently occurring number

Content-Related Validity
One of the three major categories of validity in which the focus is on whether the instrument’s content adequately represents the domain being assessed.  Evidence of content-related validity is particularly important in  achievement tests. 

Criterion-Related Validity    

Instruments designed to compare an individual’s performance with a stated criterion or standard.  Often, criterion referenced instruments provide information on specific knowledge or skills and on whether the individual has “mastered” that knowledge or skill.  The focus is on what the person knows rather than how he or she compares with other people.

Norm-Referenced Instruments    

Instruments in which the interpretation of performance is based on the comparison of an individual’s performance with that or a specified group of people    

Mental Status Exam    

Observed behaviors, affect, body language    

Objective Assessment
Instruments that require little or no judgment on the part of the individual scoring the assessment.  A multiple-choice test with a fixed scoring key is an example of an objective assessment.
Projective Technique 

A type of personality assessment that provides the client with a relatively ambiguous stimulus, thus encouraging a non-structured response the assumption underlying this technique is that the individual will project his or her personality into the response.  The interpretation of a projective technique is subjective and requires extensive training in the technique.


Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory


Content-related test of personality.  The MMPI has more research than any other test.

Achievement Test    

An assessment in which the person has “achieved” either knowledge, information, or skills through instruction, training or experience.  Achievement tests measure acquired knowledge and do not make any predictions about the future. 


The degree to which a measure or a score is free of unsystematic error.  In classical test theory, reliability is the ratio of true variance to observed variance.    




-the GREATER the error the lower the realibility. 

-think good 🙂 

-has unsytematic error (because you dont know why the erro occurred) 


range is -1.00 to +1.00

1.00=perfect negative correlation

+1.00= perfect positive correlation

0.0= no correlation


Forces in Counseling

1.  Freudian

2.  Cognitive-Behavioral

3.  Existentialism

4.  Multiculturalism


A personality test that looks at relationships.  It has a theoretical and criterion-based measure.

Crystallized IQ    

Intelligence that includes acquired skills and knowledge.  Crystallized abilities are thought to be influenced by cultural, social, and educational experiences.  This is what you have learned, mastered, and retained.

Fluid IQ    

Intelligence that is related to the abilities to respond to and solve entirely new kinds of problems.  Fluid abilities are thought to be influenced by genetic factors.    

The Flynn Effect    

As a species, humans are getting smarter every year.    


Being true.  Is the test measuring what it is supposed to measure?  No test is 100% valid because of testing error or bias.  Validity is more important than reliability.  The standard deviation statistic is used.  Validity is based on the test content. 




Qualitative Research    

Small sample, the participants provide their own view, open ended questions, interviews and observations, subjective case studies, non-experimental.    

Quantitative Research

Uses numbers, most sophisticated, experimental, controlled, dependent and independent variables, uses data.    

Aptitude Test

A test that provides a prediction about the individual’s future performance or ability to learn based on his or her performance on the test.  Aptitude tests often predict either future academic or vocational/career performance.    

Barnum Effect

A personality description that appears to be authentic, but is written so vaguely that it applies to everyone.   

Bias Testing    

The degree to which construct-irrelevant factors systematically affect a specific group’s performance.    


”Above the beginning”

Success at previous stages determines success in future stages; you keep with you what you previously had; we take what we’ve learned in earlier stages and use it as a resource    


Probabilistic, but nondeterministic; probably going to happen, but not certainly.   


There are multiple areas of development: cognitive, physical, biological, emotional, social, language    

The ability to change, adapt, and adjust to different situations   
Asynchronous Development   

When one dimension develops faster than the others

Ex: gifted children

Vertical and Horizontal Intersection    

Horizontal stressors are developmental, vertical stressors are non-developmental – they intersect the horizontal stressors of development to create problems.    

Magnifying Effect    

The state of the relationship will be magnified through the transition into the next stage.    

Nodal Events / Rites of Passage    

Markers of transitions from one stage of development to the next – often ceremonies or rituals

Ex: Wedding, Quinceanera, Bar Mitzvah

Looking-Glass Self    

Our idea of our self is developed by what others think of us.    

Self Esteem    

Global perception of one’s worth; overall general feeling of worth    

Intimacy as it relates to Identity    

Intimacy is the sharing of one’s self; you can’t have true intimacy without an established sense of identity; if a client is having intimacy issues, ask about identity    

Cohabitation and Divorce    

Cohabitation before marriage leads to a higher probability of divorce    

Cultural/Ethnic/Immigration Issues and the 1.5 Generation    

Sense of identity; change in responsibilities; 1.5 generation – some ways of first generation and some ways of second generation    


Socially lagging behind, then a making a rapid transition and getting caught up without the normal period of adjustment    

What is ACT?

    American College Testing (ACT), materials are identitcal, scoring is identical  

-it is a type of assessment 

frequency polygon 

-you use the x and y axis  to plot a number of the person’s receiving each score across from the apporpriate frequency

-they are connected in straight line. 

-easiest to understand and often used. 

raw score 

-trying to score better than what I had before

-simplest scoring method 

-the original (think Ig pic) 

you have raw score and you score lower or higher than the norming group. 
Type 1 Error 

a condition is absent but you accept the results as positive. so it’s a false positive. 

ex. when Kat says “im going to be there” but she doesnt show up. 

Type 2 Error 

The conditions is present but you say is not, you accept the results as negative (positive false)

ex. when Edith is ther studying but is is not fully there because shes thinking about food”  

a ranking that provides an indication of the percent of scores that fall at or below a given score.