Country Research Paper: Peru


            A country formally ruled by the powerful
Incan civilization and later conquered by the Spanish is the tropical country
of Peru. Its capital Lima is located along its coast, and the country has a
population of 31, 838,00 people. Peru uses the Sol as currency, which is about
31 cents.

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            Peru is located on the west side of
South America and shares its border with the Pacific Ocean. Peru shares its continent
with Brazil and Bolivia on its east border, Chile to the south, and Columbia
and Equator to the north. For its technical location, Peru is located at about
9°S latitude, and 75°W longitude.


            The coastal region, the Andes
Mountain region, and the Amazon Basin are what Peru is geographically divided
into. The coastal region follows Peru’s west border. Most of the population
lives in this region, which has an arid climate. The northern coast contains
the Sechura desert, while the central coast has many hills and is home to Peru’s
capital Lima. Traveling to the southern part of the coastal region brings more
mountainous territory.

            The Andes Mountain region divides
the coastal region from the Amazon Basin. Traveling across the Andes,
especially near the central part of the region, has proved difficult. While
some high areas have snow, the region is dry with changing temperatures due to
different elevations. The southern part of the region has more plateaus and volcanoes.

            The Amazon Basin holds two
superlatives: it’s the largest region, and it also has the least number of
people living there. The Amazon Basin has a tropical climate, and its low and
hilly landscape is a contrast from the tall Andes. The Montaña and the Selva
are two areas in the Amazon Basin. Where the Andes end, the forested Montaña
begins. Traveling east in the Amazon Basin will lead you to the Selva, which is
made up of jungle.


Peru is home to part of the Andes
Mountain range, which passes straight through the country. The mountains, while
higher and steeper as they cross the central part of the country, ease off as
they approach its northern and southern parts. Mount Huascarán, the tallest mountain
in the country, is located in the Andes. Peru is also home to South America’s
biggest lake, Lake Titicaca. Peru’s rivers include the Amazon, Maranon, and Ucayali.

While the country’s soil isn’t known for its fertility (except for parts along
the coast), they are known for having gold, petroleum, and copper.

Peru’s human characteristics vary. The
country’s ethnic makeup is composed of a majority of Quechua Indians who tend
to make up the poorer class and live in the Andes or Amazon Basin regions, and
a mestizo minority who tend to live in the coastal region and make up the
higher social classes. Due to Spanish conquest, Roman Catholicism is a dominant
religion and Spanish a major language, though Quechua and Aymara are not dying
out due to the number of Indians that speak them. Food includes yucca, rice,
seviche (popular fish dish), various meats, and potatoes. Festivals (both
religious and secular) are common.


            While the Andes don’t make traveling
the easiest for people of Peru, there are some ways to get from one place to
another.  The Central Highway is one of
the ways to get across the Andes, another is the Central Railway (and its
connecting railways), which makes transportation easier for the Andes miners.

The Pan American Highway’s length is longer than the country itself, traveling
along its coast. Seaports and airports are also located in Peru. Some of their
port cities include Puno, Callao (largest), and Iquitos. Peru also has an international
airport in Lima. While the country exports some of their food like sugar and
fish meal, they also import food to as well as consumer goods. Exports also
include some of their many minerals like copper and gold. Peru also has various
tourist sites, the most obvious one being Machu Picchu in the Andes, which is the
ruins of a house from the Incan royalty. Other tourist sites having to do with
Peru’s ancient rulers are Caral, the remains of an extremely old city, and the
Nazca Lines, which has over 1000-year-old desert drawings.

Human-Environment Interaction

            Most of Peru’s population and major
cities are along the coast of the country, less live in the Andes, and less
than 15% live in the Amazon Basin. Their major cities along the coast all share
the trait of being near to water. The land in the coastal region is also less impeding
than the high Andes. The economy of Peru tends to match its population trends.

The cities have more factories, and the northern coastal region is known for
their food production. The people who live in the other regions of Peru tend to
have a rural lifestyle, and while they do focus on agriculture and there are
natural resources there, the cities are where people go for jobs.


            The llama is a common animal to
South America. Peru has one on their flag, and the animal is seen on trinkets,
clothing, and accessories. Present before the Inca, the llama was frequently used
as a pack animal before horses and other animals came to the area. They are
still herded by people living in the rural parts of Peru.

            Friendliness is not always the term
used to describe llamas, though they are capable of kindness toward humans if
raised right. In a herd, their rudeness is commonly associated with their
social structure. If they view humans as fellow herd members, they’ll be more
apt to treat them as such. Life with a herd of llamas isn’t always so bitter,
as they do look out for each other when they aren’t spitting at their peers.

Current Event

            From articles from BBC and CNN, I
was informed of some conflicts happening in Peru. The articles focused on the
recent pardon of Peru’s former president Alberto Fujimori. Politics are not
perfect in Peru, and this president was jailed for participating in scandals and
allowing people to be killed. The former president wasn’t the healthiest
person, and apparently that played a role in his pardon, which was done by the
current president Pedro Pablo Kuczynski.

hasn’t been the perfect president either and was almost impeached not too long
ago. The former president’s son aided in stopping Kucztnski’s almost
impeachment. This was before his father was pardoned. Protestors don’t see
these two events as coincidence and are displeased with both presidents.