oridinary spoken word, used for every day purposes, but can also include poetry
a manipulation of language using meter, sound, rhythm to create meaning, may or may not rhyme, and is a more ancient form of literature than prose.
iambic pentameter

example: Shakespear 

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5 metrical feet onsisting of an unstressed and a stressed syllable. 

du-dun, du-dun, du-dun, du- dun

(think of a gallop)

trochaic pentameter

opposite of iambic 

stressed, then unstress

example: “trouble”

dun-duh, dun- duh, dun-duh

(think of a heartbeat)

blank verse

unrhymed verse that consists of iambic pentameter

rhythm results in closest of natural human speech

“organized prose”

shakespear used it

What is a good indicator of a students future reading success?

Phonological Awareness

(the ability to percieve sound structures in spoken word)

Sound represented by the letter in the alphabet
What are some examples of how we can teach phonological awareness?

language play and exposure


clapping sounds

reading out loud

grouping objects by beginning sound

teaching verbal directions

predicting blended phenomes

alphabetic priniciple
the use of letters and combinations of letters to represent speech sounds
literal versus ctritical comprehension
literal understanding of the text versus understanding the writers intent or purpose of the text

syllable attached to beginning or end of word and affects the meaning of the word.

(see prefix and suffix- both of which are affixes)

syllable attached to beginning of a word
syllable added to the end of the word
root word
base word which affixes can be added onto
Common Context Clues
synonyms, antonyms, explanations and examples
Before a student decodes a new word, what skills will they need to have gained prior?
relationship between letters and sounds, letter patterns, basic phenological awareness, the idea that a printed word is a word that can be spoken
an exaggeration
comparing with “like” or “as”
direct comparison of 2 unlike things without using “like” or “as”
giving human qualities to a non-human thing or idea
using part of something to signify the whole

use of one term that is closely related or associated with another, to mean the other

example “crown” for “nmonarchy”

metacognitive skills
self awareness, planning, self monitoring and reflection
Piaget’s “Cognitive Approach” theory of language development
children must develop approrpiate cognitive skills before they can approach language
Sociocognitive Approach theory of language development
complex interaction of linguistic social and cognitive influences
flat versus round character

flat = displays only a few personality traits

round = complex personality

noun suffix

a suffix that describes the act of, quality of, or state of the noun



(the act of arguing)


(one who works)

verb suffix

suffix that helps turn a noun into a verb- helps the word perform an act





coordination conjunction

used to link words, phrases, and clauses

examples: are, or, nor, for, but, yet, so

correlative conjunction

paired terms to link clauses

examples: either/or, neither/nor, if/then


adjectival suffix

turns words into describing words





“to” plus root word


“to be honest”

“to hold”

“to remember”


the learning approach theory of language development
language is learned through imitation and solidified through education
what is a direct object in a clause/sentence?

states to whom/to what an action was committed 

“Jon served the meal

suboridinating conjunction

relates dependent clauses to independent ones

examples: although, because, if, since, before, after

indirect object in a clause/sentence

-for whom/what an action was committed

“Jon served us the meal”

linguistic approach theory of language development
Chomsky’s theory that language is innate/biologically given
what must a complete setence contain?
a noun and verb
prepositional phrase

combo of a preposition and a noun/pronoun


across the bridge

subject verb agreement

the verb changes form depending on whether the subject is singular or plural 


the birds eat grain

the bird eats grain

Bildungsroman/”novel of formation”

the moral, spiritual, or intellectual development of a young progtagonist

-the character must develop over time in the book

confusing a word with another similar sounding word
comma splice
comma used to join to independent clauses without a conjunction
prepositional phrase fragment

a fragment that begins with a prepositon

example: “by the time we arrived.”


style of writing where you go overboard to evoke pity, sorrow, nobility to the point of ridiculousness

a literary let down

similar to anticlimax but without the comedic effect


a “cover up” word

i.e. “expires” instead of “dead” 

relative clause

a clause that starts with who, that, which etc.

-used to to dfine the noun that precedes them


repitition used to convey meaning

-usually to create a feeling of building excitement or importance


using a single word to express a complex idea

“up” for “pick me up” or “food” for “give me food”


telgraphic speech
sentences that contain 3 or more words (1 noun and 1 verb)
pragmatics in language

social cues, rules, gestures that convey an underlining meaning

speaking differently depending on listener’s age or status

An extensive oral vocabularly is most likely to contribute to a reader’s decoding skills by helping the reader to….
recognize a word after sounding it out
modernist approach to writing
modernism = devestation of war, disconnection from tradition, sense of uncertainty, disillusionment, despair
“local color” style of writing

-describes unique physical landscape of a place

-customs, dialect, or way of thinking of those who live ther

neoclassical approach to writing
-satirical, makes generalizations about the world and observations about humanity with satiric overtones
what is the ability to use morphological rules?
when teacher says x is y, other x’s are y’s to the students, despite past experiences
top down processing
referring to the background and personal global knowledge to determine the meaning of a message
bottom up processing
using data obtained from what was said to determine the meaning of a message
Ancient Greece: Defining Features

-multiple city/states, seperated by geological features (deep valleys and rocky mountains)

-all the cities spoke the same language but they had different cultures, government, societal structures

-they would ban together during the Persian Wars, to create their Golden Age where their art, science, philosophy, and architecture flourished

Athens Vs. Sparta

-ancient rivals

-compete via olympics, statues of the winners = heros

– S= militaristic society, bred for warriors, rigid art, caste system

-A = democratic society, focus on individuality, bred philosophers, intellectuals, merchants, modernizing art, good navy


The Persian Wars

-Darius, then son Xerxes, of the Persian Empire try to take control of Greece

-Greek city states join together to defeat Persia

-Athens votes to fight against Persia

-Spartans fight an epic battle (Thermoplyae) to hold off Persians

-Battle of Salamis, Athen’s navy destroy Persian fleet

-Battle of Plataea- allied Greeks defeat Persia

Lead to the Greek Golden Age


-a battle where very few Spartans fought bravely against Persians (they were slaughtered but did significant damage)

-“great courage against overwhelming odds”

Battle of Plataea

497 B.C.

allied greeks defeat Persia once and for all

Battle of Salamis
Greeks destroy Persia in a naval battle (athen’s Navy)
Alexander the Great

Greek leader, taught by a line of philosophers, prince of Macedonia, forced the Greek city states to sweat allegiance to him.

-conquered the western half of the persian empire (persian soldiers were disloyal)

-brilliant soldier/general

Invaded India and Egypt as well

Wanted to keep going but troops disagreed so they turned around, Alexander died and his conquered lands were split up into multiple kingdoms (“Hellenistic Kingdoms”)

(founder of Egypts “Alexandria” where the famous library stood)

-conquests spread Greek culture from Egypt to India

ancient greek philospher who urged followers to question their beliefs, was ordered to commit suicide

-student of Socrates, multiple writings of combined philosophies:

-reality lies beyond the visual realm in the form of ideas and constructs

-allegory of the cave


-student of Plato but held different beliefs:

-follow reason, not emotion

-reality is found on earth

-studies biology

-believer in balances

“the golden mean”

taught Alexander the Great


-famous greek playwrite

-new depths of human insight

-tragedy themes inspired by Persian Wars


-famous greek architecture

marble temple with gently curving columns

emphasis on proportions and balance


famous greek sculpture of the discus thrower, olympic hero

emergence of movement and life in sculpture

Myron 450 BC

Ancient India: defining features

-divided into multiple regions due to series of floods and invasions

-no fluid social structure


-karma, caste system, buddhism 

-Indian mathmeticians used decimal system, introduced the concept of 0, and architects built the great Taj Mahal

Causes of the American Revolution

-French Indian War- expensive to British so they increased taxes in the colonies

-Bostom Massacre- refusual to pay taxes = troops sent to colonies (quartering act) = riots = colonists killed by british troops

-Boston Tea Party- first step of organized rebellion, dumped tea in harbor- huge economic loss to Brits, leading them to increase laws and taxation

-Intolerable Acts- increased laws and taxation on colonists that would drive them to to create “The First Continental Congress”

Patrick Henry

said war was imminent

“war of words is doing nothing”

britain is sending more troops!


Thomas Paine

-writer of “Common Sense” which urged the colonies to declare independence

(widespread idea of rebellion)

Battle of Bunker Hill

Britain won but had 4 times as many casualties

first sign of broken british confidence

Battle of Saratoga 1777
B. Franklin able to convince France to aid America in the revolution because this NY battle did so well.
Battle of Yorktown 1781

France + America Wins!

Britain retreats! 

Industrial Revolution: Key Points

-new weaving and ironworking techniques 

-roads and waterways expanded and improved

-increased prosperity and political power of the middle class



How were the articles of confederation the same as the U.S. Constitution?

-dealt with western territories

-print and borrow government money

-common defense of the states

How were the articles of confederation different from the declaration of independence?
-states have their own central govenment (instead of a strong federal government) and state taxes only (instead of federal and state taxes)
European Rennaissance

-period in European history,14th to the 17th century,

-regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history

-revival of learning based on classical sources

-linear perspectives of works of art

-discarding Aristotles “final clause” and favoring the scientific method

Aristotle’s Clauses

1) material = things that can be determined by our senses (the table it hard, its made of wood, you cannot eat it)

2) formal= structure, design, the blueprints of the thing

(it was made a table, not a chair) 

3)effecient cause- who was the creator, builder, the energy or reason behind the thing or changing the thing

(this carpenter made the table)

4)final cause- why is the thing there, what is it for?

(the table was made for eating upon)


this table is solid and brown because it is made of wood (matter), it does not collapse because it has four legs of equal length (form), it is as such because a carpenter made it starting from a tree (agent), it has these dimensions because it is to be used by men and women (end)

Deprivational Morpheme

a meaningful unit combined with roots and stems to form new words ith new meanings

potential to change the part of speech

example: ish added to the noun boy, resulting in the adjective boyish

denotative meaning
dictionary meaning; what a word refers to
linguistic system used by an individual (vs dialect- lingustic system charachertistics of communities)

-study of meaningful units of language

-patterns of distribution contribute to the forms and structure of words

distinct from etymology

study of the historical and cultural origins in words

the rhythmic and tonal aspects of speech

“music” of oral language

(pitch variations, stress patterns, duration)

The Mayans

500 B.C.

Central America (Guatemala and S. Mexico)

Tikal = most important city

ruins still exist today: hieroglyphs, temples, palaces, sculptures

discovered 0, impressive Calander 

sacrificed to gods

ancestry determined status (rulers descendents of Gods)

slash and burn agriculture




Central Mexico

Tenochtitlan (now under Mexico City)- eagle holding snake on prickly pear cactus ended nomad lifestyle

-150,000 inhabitants at its peak

pyramid structures

emperor is god, adviced by powerful high priests

human sacrifices (slaves and

collapsed in 1521, european disease and war with Cortes



Pacific coast of S. America

Machu Piccu

14,000 miles of roads

1,000 miles end to end

skilled stonemasons, llamas, potato farmers

tunnels and rope bridges

rulers descend from gods

collapse from civil war, european disease, war with Pizarro

mtns = limited expansion so developed awesome engineering skills

Treaty of Tordesaillas

1494- line drawn through Atlantic Ocean

East = Portugal can explore and claim

West = Spain can explore and claim

Three Portuguese Explorers

De Gama– spices, east coast of Africa, introduced Islam

Cabral– south america, discovered and colonized Brazil

Magellan– southern tip of S. America (Magellan Strait)- ship sailed around the world though he died on voyage

Dutch Colonist

Cape Town in South Africa


Major Spice Traders- relationship with Phillippines and Spice Islands (now indonesia)

British Colonists

driven by spices also but went northward- north america 

also had pirates 

TransAtlantic Slave Trade

diseases dominated native people so colonists turned to African slaves

a triangle trade system- traders would trade colonists’ goods for slaves to sell to the colonies

Middle Passage

over 10 million africans 

150-600 per ship

1/10 would die

90+ day voyage

packed like sardines, branded like cattle

Castiglione’s The Courtier

Renn. time period

explaining how a courtier should act

balances politics with entertainment

sprezzatura- makes it look easy


Machiavelli’s The Prince

Renn. time period

studied politics of his day and ancient rome

came to the conclusion that princes needed to be feared, more than loved

must be desicive and ruthless

Printing Press



Started in Latin, with the Bible

good for spreading renn. philosophies, religious ideas etc.

-reached ordinary ppl


land holders- the main power holders in fuedal japan
the daiymo with the most poer, named by the emeror
feudal japan: emperors
religious and cultural leaders, but only political power was that they could name who was shogun
swordsman that fought for the Daiymos in feudal japan

the code of the samurai

bravery, self control, loyalty

Feudal Japan: Class Systems

Samurai Class

Peasant Class

Artisan Class

Merchant Class


-about purpose and contribution- hence, merchants were lower end because they just traded. 


Japanese religion, worshipping Kami- nature spirits

Shinto Shrines

japanese nature spirit, shinto religion
Ivan The Great
freed Russia from the Mongol Empire in 1480
Ivan the Terrible

executed nobles and church leaders who opposed him

formed a police force to arrest opposers

killed his own son

continues Russian expansion

Peter the Great

throne at 1682

wanted to make Russia an international power

reorganized gov. 

introduced foreign scientists

modernized army

changed attire and had people shave beards = more like europeans

expanded Russia all the way to the Baltic Sea 

St. Petersburg (beat Sweden) 

Catherine the Great

German princess married into Russian royalty

throne at 1762

gained Port of Odessa (vs. Turks)- black sea- doesnt freeze in winter (one of a kind in russia)

seperated church from state

nobles gained wealth, peasants turned to serfdom

CA Gold Rush

1848 James W. Marshall

1949- huge influx- 49ers

sifted through soil, many unlucky, rough lifestyle

oppoed American westward expansion and the treaties that allowed them to settle on Native American lands. Banned the tribes together to fight against the Americans
1811 Battle of Tippecanoe
Tecumseh defeated by Americans, Native tribed broken

florida native who resisted Americans moving his people to Oklahoma

tricked into arrest and died in prison, his people forced to leave

Manifest Destiny
the idea that Americans had a natural right to expand and control the lands between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans
Stephen Austin
founded texas (mexico owned) in 1821
Battle of San Jacinto
Texans defeat Mexico and gain Texas, which becomes the 28th state in 1845
Mexican American War

boundary dispute- where is Texas border?

President Polk starts a war to claim American decided border and also other Mexican lands- desired U.S. to stretch to Pacific.

Won in 1848

gained Calif, Nevada, prts of Ariz, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming

1853, purchased rest of Arizona and New Mexico

Pacific Northwest- when gained to U.S.A?
Polk persuades British in 1846- Washington, Oregon, and Idaho
Roman Empire: Defining Features

-borders entire medeterranean by 1st century BCE

society = slaves, plebians, equesrians (knights), patriocians (nobles)

republic- a council sanate which ruled, but there was also a Cesar 

great architecture, philosphies, and mixed religions among vast empire- stretched all the way to Egypt- relations with Cleopatra

very similar to Greek culture but expanded upon

Louisiana Purchase


Thomas Jefferson purchases land from France

Mississippi to Rocky Mtns

Louis and Clark Expedition

1804- goal to find a westward river to Pacific Ocean to aid in trade and expansion

Sacagawea- native american woman who aided with translations

successfully crossed mtns to california and pacific ocean and came back

collected information, biological, and cultural about native tribes

feudalism: one who recieves land- in exchange for their loyalty and protection
the land given to a vassal from their lord: feudalism
the peasantry of feudalism- not actually slaves but the lowest class. they earned the protection of their lords.
Marco Polo
famous world trader- travelling to China and other lands during the medieval period
William the Conquerer

sailed from normandy to england with 700 ships and 7,000 knights to take over england in 1066

defeated King Harold in the Battle of Hastings

turned his knights into english nobleman

hired sheriffs to collect taxes, stationed soldiers to quell rebellions, created an organized government

created the domesday book

Domesday Book
the first book in England to list land entitlements
Henry II

1154- set up a system of law that is the basis for courts today in UK and USA

-citizens finally get a say in trials

-appeals process introduced

Magna Carta

There is a common law that everyone must follow, despite class or heirarchy. 

The King must respect the rights of the nobles and consult with them if they want new laws.

Formed the first parliament in the UK

King John in 1199


1000 BC

traded with Egypt

pyramids in napata

Meroe- own language and heiroglyph system

taken over by Axum in AD 340



ancient ethiopia

major trading empire that had foreign inhabitants, skilled architects and stonemasons. 

converted to christianity

invaded kush

draught and persian trade competition destroyed this empire.

Louisiana Purchase
1803- Mississippi to Rocky Mtns- Jefferson purchased from France with his dream of manifest destiny in mind.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
1804- mapped all the way to the Pacific ocean with Sacagawea hoping for a continuous river west for trade and expansion. discovered many new species of plants and animals and native american tribes. tons of maps. made it all the way to the pacific ocean despite mountains
Missouri Compromise


dispute over whether or not Missouri would be a slave state- would tip the delicate balance in congress for representation of slave or free states

compromise- make Maine a state also- Maine will be a free state while Missouri can be a slave state. 

Monroe Doctrine
U.S. proclaims no interest in claiming new lands and keeping peace with other nations- just as long as they don’t mess with the U.S.
Indian Removal Bill and The Trail of Tears
Andrew Jackson allowed American government to force Native Americans off their lands and from their homes. Cherokees refused to leave so gov got troops to force them to walk the 800 miles to “indian territory” oklahoma. many of them died along the way,
Dorothea Dix
fought for government support of mentally ill thru better care and mental hospitals
Horace Mann
provided public education to children of all classes
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Seneca Falls Convention- equal rights for women
Sojourner Truth
freed slave that spoke for abolition and womens rights
War of 1812

last war between U.S. and U.K

started with U.K. encouraging native americans to attack american settlers

how the whitehouse got named whitehouse (brits invaded washington and burned the presidents house and they painted it white)

made andrew jackson a hero

Dust Bowl Migration

great depression + severe draught caused over 86,000 people to migrate west, many to CA where there was continued farm work. 

increased government support in providing jobs, imporoving infrastructure and disaster and draught relief programs (Federal New Deal and the WPA)

increased federal funding for the arts- Stienbeck, Woodie Guthrie, Dorathea Lange, Wizard of Oz and Gone with the Wind

replaced mexican migrant workers and forced mexican deportation from CA

Bear Flag Revolt
American settlers capture Guadalupe Vallejo and calim establishment of C.A. as a U.S. state.
Strait of Arian
the nonexistent strait to Asia that so many Spanish explorers were looking for, but instead discovered CA.
Mexicans who remained in CA after it became a U.S. territory
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo 1848

after C.A. becomes U.S. territory, one could keep their land as long as they could prove it

-squatters and the introduction to property taxes made it very difficult still 

-ended Mexican control in CA

Foreign Miners Tax of 1850

taxed foreign miners in CA in order to drive the mass influx of immigrants coming to CA to mine

increased revenue and improved economy

strategies for second language acquisition

simple repeated terms

relate to culture of students

gestures and nonverbal actions

link words to actions and events


allow experimentation and practice

bilingual students = translators

multisensory learning


inductive reasoning
using observable data to draw a general conclusion- a hypothesis- where further data could prove it’s false
deductive reasoning

using observable data to draw a very specific conclusion

(i.e. if all students take geometry, susan is a student, she must take geometry)

attacks the person you’re arguing against vs. the actual point they are arguing

verb + ing being used as a noun

“walking is good excersize” 


verb + ing and acts as an adjective 

“the sleeping baby”


first known urban civilization 4000-1000 B.C. 

located in the middle east

advanced tools and weapons

warring city states

first form of writing = cuneiform

oldest example of writing- in the form of heiroglyphs- Sumerians
Antecedents To the Civil War

Expansion (louisiana purchase)

Differences between N and S (industry v ag)

The forming of new states:

         -missourri compromise

-bleeding kansas

The Kansas-Nebraska Act

Fugitive Slave Law

Lincoln elected into presidency


Protestant Reformation

Martin Luther and followers split from Catholicism in the middle ages

didnt like the idea that arbitrary rules and buying you way into heaven

would split up among themsevles



followers of John Calvin

Believed in pre destination and only the elect would get to heaven

The Crusades

war in the middle ages

european catholics vs. middle east muslims


English Reformation of Catholic Church

Followers by King Henry the 8th

wanted to make it legal to annul his marraiges -was pissed off at the pope for refusing to do so- formed his own church

Kansas Nebraska Act 1854

repealed Miss. Compromise

settle the slavery issue by popular svereignty

outraged Northerners formed the Republican Party (Lincoln)

Bleeding Kansas
civil war between pro and anti slavery settlers while Kansas deciding on whether or not they will be a slave state
Dred Scott Vs. Sanford 1857
congress has no authority to exclude slavery from their territories