Prose
oridinary spoken word, used for every day purposes, but can also include poetry
Poetry
a manipulation of language using meter, sound, rhythm to create meaning, may or may not rhyme, and is a more ancient form of literature than prose.
iambic pentameter
example: Shakespear 5 metrical feet onsisting of an unstressed and a stressed syllable. du-dun, du-dun, du-dun, du- dun(think of a gallop)
trochaic pentameter
opposite of iambic stressed, then unstressexample: “trouble”dun-duh, dun- duh, dun-duh(think of a heartbeat)
blank verse
unrhymed verse that consists of iambic pentameterrhythm results in closest of natural human speech”organized prose”shakespear used it
What is a good indicator of a students future reading success?
Phonological Awareness(the ability to percieve sound structures in spoken word)
Phenome
Sound represented by the letter in the alphabet
What are some examples of how we can teach phonological awareness?
language play and exposurei.

e:clapping soundsreading out loudgrouping objects by beginning soundteaching verbal directionspredicting blended phenomes

alphabetic priniciple
the use of letters and combinations of letters to represent speech sounds
literal versus ctritical comprehension
literal understanding of the text versus understanding the writers intent or purpose of the text
affixes
syllable attached to beginning or end of word and affects the meaning of the word.(see prefix and suffix- both of which are affixes)
prefix
syllable attached to beginning of a word
suffix
syllable added to the end of the word
root word
base word which affixes can be added onto
Common Context Clues
synonyms, antonyms, explanations and examples
Before a student decodes a new word, what skills will they need to have gained prior?
relationship between letters and sounds, letter patterns, basic phenological awareness, the idea that a printed word is a word that can be spoken
hyperbole
an exaggeration
simile
comparing with “like” or “as”
metaphor
direct comparison of 2 unlike things without using “like” or “as”
personification
giving human qualities to a non-human thing or idea
synecdoche
using part of something to signify the whole
metonymy
use of one term that is closely related or associated with another, to mean the otherexample “crown” for “nmonarchy”
metacognitive skills
self awareness, planning, self monitoring and reflection
Piaget’s “Cognitive Approach” theory of language development
children must develop approrpiate cognitive skills before they can approach language
Sociocognitive Approach theory of language development
complex interaction of linguistic social and cognitive influences
flat versus round character
flat = displays only a few personality traitsround = complex personality
noun suffix
a suffix that describes the act of, quality of, or state of the nounexamples: arguement(the act of arguing)worker(one who works)
verb suffix
suffix that helps turn a noun into a verb- helps the word perform an actexample:softendignifyrealize
coordination conjunction
used to link words, phrases, and clausesexamples: are, or, nor, for, but, yet, so
correlative conjunction
paired terms to link clausesexamples: either/or, neither/nor, if/then 
adjectival suffix
turns words into describing wordsexamples:carefulgrayish
infinitive
“to” plus root wordexamples:”to be honest””to hold””to remember” 
the learning approach theory of language development
language is learned through imitation and solidified through education
what is a direct object in a clause/sentence?
states to whom/to what an action was committed “Jon served the meal
suboridinating conjunction
relates dependent clauses to independent onesexamples: although, because, if, since, before, after
indirect object in a clause/sentence
-for whom/what an action was committed”Jon served us the meal”
linguistic approach theory of language development
Chomsky’s theory that language is innate/biologically given
what must a complete setence contain?
a noun and verb
prepositional phrase
combo of a preposition and a noun/pronounexample:across the bridge
subject verb agreement
the verb changes form depending on whether the subject is singular or plural example:the birds eat grainthe bird eats grain
Bildungsroman/”novel of formation”
the moral, spiritual, or intellectual development of a young progtagonist-the character must develop over time in the book
malapropism
confusing a word with another similar sounding word
comma splice
comma used to join to independent clauses without a conjunction
prepositional phrase fragment
a fragment that begins with a prepositonexample: “by the time we arrived.”
bathos
style of writing where you go overboard to evoke pity, sorrow, nobility to the point of ridiculousnessa literary let downsimilar to anticlimax but without the comedic effect
euphamism
a “cover up” wordi.e. “expires” instead of “dead” 
relative clause
a clause that starts with who, that, which etc.

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-used to to dfine the noun that precedes them

anaphora
repitition used to convey meaning-usually to create a feeling of building excitement or importance
halophrase
using a single word to express a complex idea”up” for “pick me up” or “food” for “give me food”-toddlers
telgraphic speech
sentences that contain 3 or more words (1 noun and 1 verb)
pragmatics in language
social cues, rules, gestures that convey an underlining meaningspeaking differently depending on listener’s age or status
An extensive oral vocabularly is most likely to contribute to a reader’s decoding skills by helping the reader to…

.

recognize a word after sounding it out
modernist approach to writing
modernism = devestation of war, disconnection from tradition, sense of uncertainty, disillusionment, despair
“local color” style of writing
-describes unique physical landscape of a place-customs, dialect, or way of thinking of those who live ther
neoclassical approach to writing
-satirical, makes generalizations about the world and observations about humanity with satiric overtones
what is the ability to use morphological rules?
when teacher says x is y, other x’s are y’s to the students, despite past experiences
top down processing
referring to the background and personal global knowledge to determine the meaning of a message
bottom up processing
using data obtained from what was said to determine the meaning of a message
Ancient Greece: Defining Features
-multiple city/states, seperated by geological features (deep valleys and rocky mountains)-all the cities spoke the same language but they had different cultures, government, societal structures-they would ban together during the Persian Wars, to create their Golden Age where their art, science, philosophy, and architecture flourished
Athens Vs. Sparta
-ancient rivals-compete via olympics, statues of the winners = heros- S= militaristic society, bred for warriors, rigid art, caste system-A = democratic society, focus on individuality, bred philosophers, intellectuals, merchants, modernizing art, good navy 
The Persian Wars
-Darius, then son Xerxes, of the Persian Empire try to take control of Greece-Greek city states join together to defeat Persia-Athens votes to fight against Persia-Spartans fight an epic battle (Thermoplyae) to hold off Persians-Battle of Salamis, Athen’s navy destroy Persian fleet-Battle of Plataea- allied Greeks defeat PersiaLead to the Greek Golden Age
Thermoplyae
-a battle where very few Spartans fought bravely against Persians (they were slaughtered but did significant damage)-“great courage against overwhelming odds”
Battle of Plataea
497 B.C.allied greeks defeat Persia once and for all
Battle of Salamis
Greeks destroy Persia in a naval battle (athen’s Navy)
Alexander the Great
Greek leader, taught by a line of philosophers, prince of Macedonia, forced the Greek city states to sweat allegiance to him.

-conquered the western half of the persian empire (persian soldiers were disloyal)-brilliant soldier/generalInvaded India and Egypt as wellWanted to keep going but troops disagreed so they turned around, Alexander died and his conquered lands were split up into multiple kingdoms (“Hellenistic Kingdoms”)(founder of Egypts “Alexandria” where the famous library stood)-conquests spread Greek culture from Egypt to India

Socrates
ancient greek philospher who urged followers to question their beliefs, was ordered to commit suicide
Plato
-student of Socrates, multiple writings of combined philosophies:-reality lies beyond the visual realm in the form of ideas and constructs-allegory of the cave
Aristotle
-student of Plato but held different beliefs:-follow reason, not emotion-reality is found on earth-studies biology-believer in balances”the golden mean”taught Alexander the Great
Sophoclles
-famous greek playwrite-new depths of human insight-tragedy themes inspired by Persian Wars
Parthenon
-famous greek architecturemarble temple with gently curving columnsemphasis on proportions and balance
Discobulus
famous greek sculpture of the discus thrower, olympic heroemergence of movement and life in sculptureMyron 450 BC
Ancient India: defining features
-divided into multiple regions due to series of floods and invasions-no fluid social structure-hinduism-karma, caste system, buddhism -Indian mathmeticians used decimal system, introduced the concept of 0, and architects built the great Taj Mahal
Causes of the American Revolution
-French Indian War- expensive to British so they increased taxes in the colonies-Bostom Massacre- refusual to pay taxes = troops sent to colonies (quartering act) = riots = colonists killed by british troops-Boston Tea Party- first step of organized rebellion, dumped tea in harbor- huge economic loss to Brits, leading them to increase laws and taxation-Intolerable Acts- increased laws and taxation on colonists that would drive them to to create “The First Continental Congress”
Patrick Henry
said war was imminent”war of words is doing nothing”britain is sending more troops! 
Thomas Paine
-writer of “Common Sense” which urged the colonies to declare independence(widespread idea of rebellion)
Battle of Bunker Hill
Britain won but had 4 times as many casualtiesfirst sign of broken british confidence
Battle of Saratoga 1777
B. Franklin able to convince France to aid America in the revolution because this NY battle did so well.
Battle of Yorktown 1781
France + America Wins!Britain retreats! 
Industrial Revolution: Key Points
-new weaving and ironworking techniques -roads and waterways expanded and improved-increased prosperity and political power of the middle class  
How were the articles of confederation the same as the U.

S. Constitution?

-dealt with western territories-print and borrow government money-common defense of the states
How were the articles of confederation different from the declaration of independence?
-states have their own central govenment (instead of a strong federal government) and state taxes only (instead of federal and state taxes)
European Rennaissance
-period in European history,14th to the 17th century, -regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history-revival of learning based on classical sources-linear perspectives of works of art-discarding Aristotles “final clause” and favoring the scientific method
Aristotle’s Clauses
1) material = things that can be determined by our senses (the table it hard, its made of wood, you cannot eat it)2) formal= structure, design, the blueprints of the thing(it was made a table, not a chair) 3)effecient cause- who was the creator, builder, the energy or reason behind the thing or changing the thing(this carpenter made the table)4)final cause- why is the thing there, what is it for?(the table was made for eating upon) this table is solid and brown because it is made of wood (matter), it does not collapse because it has four legs of equal length (form), it is as such because a carpenter made it starting from a tree (agent), it has these dimensions because it is to be used by men and women (end)
Deprivational Morpheme
a meaningful unit combined with roots and stems to form new words ith new meaningspotential to change the part of speechexample: ish added to the noun boy, resulting in the adjective boyish
denotative meaning
dictionary meaning; what a word refers to
idiolect
linguistic system used by an individual (vs dialect- lingustic system charachertistics of communities)
morphology
-study of meaningful units of language-patterns of distribution contribute to the forms and structure of wordsdistinct from etymology
etymology
study of the historical and cultural origins in words
prosody
the rhythmic and tonal aspects of speech”music” of oral language(pitch variations, stress patterns, duration)
The Mayans
500 B.C.Central America (Guatemala and S. Mexico)Tikal = most important cityruins still exist today: hieroglyphs, temples, palaces, sculpturesdiscovered 0, impressive Calander sacrificed to godsancestry determined status (rulers descendents of Gods)slash and burn agricultureUNKNOWN COLLAPSE
Aztecs
1300’sCentral MexicoTenochtitlan (now under Mexico City)- eagle holding snake on prickly pear cactus ended nomad lifestyle-150,000 inhabitants at its peakpyramid structuresemperor is god, adviced by powerful high priestshuman sacrifices (slaves and p.

o.ws)collapsed in 1521, european disease and war with Cortes

Incas
13-1400’sPacific coast of S. AmericaMachu Piccu14,000 miles of roads1,000 miles end to endskilled stonemasons, llamas, potato farmerstunnels and rope bridgesrulers descend from godscollapse from civil war, european disease, war with Pizarromtns = limited expansion so developed awesome engineering skills
Treaty of Tordesaillas
1494- line drawn through Atlantic OceanEast = Portugal can explore and claimWest = Spain can explore and claim
Three Portuguese Explorers
De Gama– spices, east coast of Africa, introduced IslamCabral– south america, discovered and colonized BrazilMagellan– southern tip of S. America (Magellan Strait)- ship sailed around the world though he died on voyage
Dutch Colonist
Cape Town in South Africa-;AfrikaansMajor Spice Traders- relationship with Phillippines and Spice Islands (now indonesia)
British Colonists
driven by spices also but went northward- north america also had pirates 
TransAtlantic Slave Trade
diseases dominated native people so colonists turned to African slavesa triangle trade system- traders would trade colonists’ goods for slaves to sell to the colonies
Middle Passage
over 10 million africans 150-600 per ship1/10 would die90+ day voyagepacked like sardines, branded like cattle
Castiglione’s The Courtier
Renn. time periodexplaining how a courtier should actbalances politics with entertainmentsprezzatura- makes it look easy 
Machiavelli’s The Prince
Renn. time periodstudied politics of his day and ancient romecame to the conclusion that princes needed to be feared, more than lovedmust be desicive and ruthless
Printing Press
1440GutenbergStarted in Latin, with the Biblegood for spreading renn.

philosophies, religious ideas etc.-reached ordinary ppl 

Daiymos
land holders- the main power holders in fuedal japan
Shogun
the daiymo with the most poer, named by the emeror
feudal japan: emperors
religious and cultural leaders, but only political power was that they could name who was shogun
Samurai
swordsman that fought for the Daiymos in feudal japan
Bushido
the code of the samuraibravery, self control, loyalty
Feudal Japan: Class Systems
Samurai ClassPeasant ClassArtisan ClassMerchant Class -about purpose and contribution- hence, merchants were lower end because they just traded. 
Shinto
Japanese religion, worshipping Kami- nature spiritsShinto Shrines
Kami
japanese nature spirit, shinto religion
Ivan The Great
freed Russia from the Mongol Empire in 1480
Ivan the Terrible
executed nobles and church leaders who opposed himformed a police force to arrest opposerskilled his own soncontinues Russian expansion
Peter the Great
throne at 1682wanted to make Russia an international powerreorganized gov. introduced foreign scientistsmodernized armychanged attire and had people shave beards = more like europeansexpanded Russia all the way to the Baltic Sea St.

Petersburg (beat Sweden) 

Catherine the Great
German princess married into Russian royaltythrone at 1762gained Port of Odessa (vs. Turks)- black sea- doesnt freeze in winter (one of a kind in russia)seperated church from statenobles gained wealth, peasants turned to serfdom
CA Gold Rush
1848 James W. Marshall1949- huge influx- 49erssifted through soil, many unlucky, rough lifestyle
Tecumseh
oppoed American westward expansion and the treaties that allowed them to settle on Native American lands. Banned the tribes together to fight against the Americans
1811 Battle of Tippecanoe
Tecumseh defeated by Americans, Native tribed broken
Oseola
florida native who resisted Americans moving his people to Oklahomatricked into arrest and died in prison, his people forced to leave
Manifest Destiny
the idea that Americans had a natural right to expand and control the lands between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans
Stephen Austin
founded texas (mexico owned) in 1821
Battle of San Jacinto
Texans defeat Mexico and gain Texas, which becomes the 28th state in 1845
Mexican American War
boundary dispute- where is Texas border?President Polk starts a war to claim American decided border and also other Mexican lands- desired U.S. to stretch to Pacific.Won in 1848gained Calif, Nevada, prts of Ariz, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming1853, purchased rest of Arizona and New Mexico
Pacific Northwest- when gained to U.

S.A?

Polk persuades British in 1846- Washington, Oregon, and Idaho
Roman Empire: Defining Features
-borders entire medeterranean by 1st century BCEsociety = slaves, plebians, equesrians (knights), patriocians (nobles)republic- a council sanate which ruled, but there was also a Cesar great architecture, philosphies, and mixed religions among vast empire- stretched all the way to Egypt- relations with Cleopatravery similar to Greek culture but expanded upon
Louisiana Purchase
1803Thomas Jefferson purchases land from FranceMississippi to Rocky Mtns
Louis and Clark Expedition
1804- goal to find a westward river to Pacific Ocean to aid in trade and expansionSacagawea- native american woman who aided with translationssuccessfully crossed mtns to california and pacific ocean and came backcollected information, biological, and cultural about native tribes
vassal
feudalism: one who recieves land- in exchange for their loyalty and protection
fief
the land given to a vassal from their lord: feudalism
serf
the peasantry of feudalism- not actually slaves but the lowest class. they earned the protection of their lords.

Marco Polo
famous world trader- travelling to China and other lands during the medieval period
William the Conquerer
sailed from normandy to england with 700 ships and 7,000 knights to take over england in 1066defeated King Harold in the Battle of Hastingsturned his knights into english noblemanhired sheriffs to collect taxes, stationed soldiers to quell rebellions, created an organized governmentcreated the domesday book
Domesday Book
the first book in England to list land entitlements
Henry II
1154- set up a system of law that is the basis for courts today in UK and USA-citizens finally get a say in trials-appeals process introduced
Magna Carta
There is a common law that everyone must follow, despite class or heirarchy. The King must respect the rights of the nobles and consult with them if they want new laws.Formed the first parliament in the UKKing John in 1199
Kush
1000 BCtraded with Egyptpyramids in napataMeroe- own language and heiroglyph systemtaken over by Axum in AD 340 
Axum
ancient ethiopiamajor trading empire that had foreign inhabitants, skilled architects and stonemasons. converted to christianityinvaded kushdraught and persian trade competition destroyed this empire.

Louisiana Purchase
1803- Mississippi to Rocky Mtns- Jefferson purchased from France with his dream of manifest destiny in mind.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
1804- mapped all the way to the Pacific ocean with Sacagawea hoping for a continuous river west for trade and expansion. discovered many new species of plants and animals and native american tribes. tons of maps. made it all the way to the pacific ocean despite mountains
Missouri Compromise
1820dispute over whether or not Missouri would be a slave state- would tip the delicate balance in congress for representation of slave or free statescompromise- make Maine a state also- Maine will be a free state while Missouri can be a slave state.

 

Monroe Doctrine
U.S. proclaims no interest in claiming new lands and keeping peace with other nations- just as long as they don’t mess with the U.S.
Indian Removal Bill and The Trail of Tears
Andrew Jackson allowed American government to force Native Americans off their lands and from their homes.

Cherokees refused to leave so gov got troops to force them to walk the 800 miles to “indian territory” oklahoma. many of them died along the way,

Dorothea Dix
fought for government support of mentally ill thru better care and mental hospitals
Horace Mann
provided public education to children of all classes
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Seneca Falls Convention- equal rights for women
Sojourner Truth
freed slave that spoke for abolition and womens rights
War of 1812
last war between U.S. and U.Kstarted with U.K.

encouraging native americans to attack american settlershow the whitehouse got named whitehouse (brits invaded washington and burned the presidents house and they painted it white)made andrew jackson a hero

Dust Bowl Migration
great depression + severe draught caused over 86,000 people to migrate west, many to CA where there was continued farm work. increased government support in providing jobs, imporoving infrastructure and disaster and draught relief programs (Federal New Deal and the WPA)increased federal funding for the arts- Stienbeck, Woodie Guthrie, Dorathea Lange, Wizard of Oz and Gone with the Windreplaced mexican migrant workers and forced mexican deportation from CA
Bear Flag Revolt
American settlers capture Guadalupe Vallejo and calim establishment of C.A. as a U.S. state.
Strait of Arian
the nonexistent strait to Asia that so many Spanish explorers were looking for, but instead discovered CA.

Californios
Mexicans who remained in CA after it became a U.S. territory
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo 1848
after C.A. becomes U.

S. territory, one could keep their land as long as they could prove it-squatters and the introduction to property taxes made it very difficult still -ended Mexican control in CA

Foreign Miners Tax of 1850
taxed foreign miners in CA in order to drive the mass influx of immigrants coming to CA to mineincreased revenue and improved economy
presidio
fort
pueblo
town
strategies for second language acquisition
simple repeated termsrelate to culture of studentsgestures and nonverbal actionslink words to actions and eventsschedulesallow experimentation and practicebilingual students = translatorsmultisensory learningintegration
inductive reasoning
using observable data to draw a general conclusion- a hypothesis- where further data could prove it’s false
deductive reasoning
using observable data to draw a very specific conclusion(i.e. if all students take geometry, susan is a student, she must take geometry)
ad-hominem
attacks the person you’re arguing against vs. the actual point they are arguing
gerund
verb + ing being used as a noun”walking is good excersize” 
participle
verb + ing and acts as an adjective “the sleeping baby”
Sumerians
first known urban civilization 4000-1000 B.

C. located in the middle eastadvanced tools and weaponswarring city statesfirst form of writing = cuneiform

cuneiform
oldest example of writing- in the form of heiroglyphs- Sumerians
Antecedents To the Civil War
Expansion (louisiana purchase)Differences between N and S (industry v ag)The forming of new states:         -missourri compromise-bleeding kansasThe Kansas-Nebraska ActFugitive Slave LawLincoln elected into presidency 
Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther and followers split from Catholicism in the middle agesdidnt like the idea that arbitrary rules and buying you way into heavenwould split up among themsevles
Reformed
Calvanistsfollowers of John CalvinBelieved in pre destination and only the elect would get to heaven
The Crusades
war in the middle ageseuropean catholics vs. middle east muslims
Anglicanism
English Reformation of Catholic ChurchFollowers by King Henry the 8thwanted to make it legal to annul his marraiges -was pissed off at the pope for refusing to do so- formed his own church
Kansas Nebraska Act 1854
repealed Miss. Compromisesettle the slavery issue by popular svereigntyoutraged Northerners formed the Republican Party (Lincoln)
Bleeding Kansas
civil war between pro and anti slavery settlers while Kansas deciding on whether or not they will be a slave state
Dred Scott Vs. Sanford 1857
congress has no authority to exclude slavery from their territories