the study of sound system of a language; the patterns of speech sound
the basic, fundamental building blocks of sounds; the individual sound of consonents and vowels; the sounds that make a language; the discrete sound segments such as /t/, /m/, or /a/
the tone (low and high or up and down); convey urgency; changes meaning when articulated
intonation patterns
the use of pitch to change a statement into a question
the patterns of stress and intonation in a language
How can phonology inhibit communication?
Incorrect pronounciation inhibits clearity; EL maynot be able to differentiate certain in English sound if it doesnot exist in his L1; EL may not be able to identify a question being produced from stressing the intonation patterns of a statement
the study of words or meaning units in a language
the basic building blocks of meaning units in a language; the smallest unit for meaning, 2 types of morphemes: bound and free morphemes such as “er in player or play” respectively
lexical morpheme
free morpheme; compound morhpeme such as “bed time”
inflectional endings
the 8 suffixes as follow “s in buyers, s in a verb like runs, ing in running, es in foxes, er in taller, ed in played, and est in tallest”
base that needs affix in order to form a word; samples are cred=believe, phon=sound, ped=foot, bene=good,
prefix and suffix like “re in reread or ous in dangerous”
How can morphology inhibit communication?
misunderstanding the root can lead to false meaning; incorrect comprehension
the rules that govern the structure of a sentence or phrase; how a sentence is formed; order of words
syntactic classes (part of speech)
verbs, nouns, adverds, adjectives, prepositions, pronouns, interjections, articles, and conjunctions
sentence patterns
various ways of expressing a complete thought from sentences; simple to compound and complex sentences.
What are some of the implications of syntactic rules?
students need to be exposed to different sentence patterns from simple to compound/complex both oral and written in order to acquire the patterns; they can be taught after the language acquisition process in order for students to monitor their development
the study of the meanings of individual words and of larger units such as phrases and sentences
dificulties with semantics
multiple meanings, false cognates, idioms, and language ambiguities such as “I’m at the bank” which depends on context-riverbank, snowbank, or financial
Implications-what are some of the difficulties related to semantics?
direct translation many times have vague meaning which lead to less comprehension; meaning in context
5 social functions of language
1. to amuse (telling a joke), 2. to inform (newscast), 3. to control/command (sit down), 4. to persuade (selling a product), and 5. to apologize (I’m so sorry for bumping into you)
7 academic functions of language
1. persuading (persuading essay), 2. describing ( descriptive essay), 3. defining (definition, rules,..) 4. predicting (math), 5. explaining (directions), 6. analyzing (word problems, literature piece,..), and 7. compare/contrasting
language variation
dialects, historical, social, and academic
dialect variation
not just accents, but pronunciation and vocabulary also such as soda=pop and couch=daveneau
historical variation
old English vs. new English like the different meanings of “bad” over time
social language variation
frozen register-medical, formal register-academic, casual register-friends, intimate register-relationship
acadamic language variation
content specific, general academic and cross-curricular, terms, jargon
2 contemporary theories
cognitivism and constructivism
cognitivism contemporary theory
learner is viewed as the brain like a computer, an information processor (schema, mapping, ..); learned individually
constructivism contemporary theory
learner is viewed as an information constructor using their own objective reality; interact with others, social learning, problem based learning, scaffolding..
Krashen’s 5 hypotheses
acquisitio-learning hypothesis, monitor hypothesis, natural order hypothesis, input hypothesis, and affective filter hypothesis
Krashen’s acquisistion-learning hepothesis
2 indepdent systems of second language performance; acquisition piece is a subconscious process similar to how children acquire their L1; learning piece is the formal learning of language, conscious knowledge of the language and rules
Krashen’s monitor hypothesis
the monitor act as an editor
social language, non-academic language, not learned language
Cummin’s quadrants
4 quandrants with cognitively undemanding at the top and demanding at the bottom, while context-embedded materials locate on the left and context-reduced on the right
ice-berg graphic organizer
BICS on the surface, CALP under the surface and CUP under CALP, the idea is to ensure student delopment is proportional in both, CUP may grow faster
stages of acquisition of L1
babbling stage, holographic (one word such as dog), two-word stage ( car go) similar to beginning stage for EL, telegraphic (more than 2 words such as Katy built house) similar to early intermediate stage for EL
L2 language acquisition stages
beginning, early intermediate, intermediate, early advanced, and advanced (preproduction, early production, speech emergence, intermediate fluency)
6 factors that influence L2 acquisition
cognitive factors, linguistic factors, physical factors, affective filter factors, socio-cultural factors, and political factors
cognitive factors
1. first major point is learning always involves conscious and unconscious processes; the pedigogical implication is embed learning of facts and skills with natural,special memory; the best practice for this piece is discrete language skills can be taught if embedded in real world activities
2. the second major point to consider is at least 2 types of memories rote and spatial; the pedigological implication is that teaching includes novel experiences and taps into the spatial learning system; best practices include implementing acitivities associate with visual, aural, and kinesthetic abilities; always consider the various learning styles-dependend and independent or learning strategies (techniques)
linguistic factors
1. first major point to consider is proficiency in L1 helps language development in L2; the pedigological implication is to look at each language assessment to determine proficiency; the best practice is heterogeneous grouping for supports; 2. the second major point to consider is the stages: silent period, gestures, single words, and then sentences; the pedigological implication is students will need wait time to process ?s and then respond back and using authentic situations to create meaning; the best practices will include realia, visual sdaie strategies in instruction and allow students to clarify using L1