Types of Standardized Tests
CELDT: California English Language Development Test (CAHSEE: California High School Exit ExaminationCST: California Standards TestsCAT: California Achievement TestSTAR:Standardized testing and Reporting(looks at performance of 2-11 grade using CST, CMA, CAP, SADE)SADE: Spanish Assessment of Basic EducationAMAO: Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives
Implementing differetiated, standards based instruction
Wiggins and McTighe’s Backwards Lesson Planning:Desired outcome first id. How is that assessed. Last curriculum and instruction planned.

Curriculum Calibration:learning activities are analyzed to see how they are aligned with standards.Curriculum Mapping:A teacher maps out the entire years objectives then plans activities to support, reinforce, evaluate, and test.

Universal Access to LA Curriculum
ensures all students in CA have instruction needed so that they can will be able to meet all of the CA ELA standards.Learning how to best serve all students from a variety of backgrounds. 
CELDTCalifornia English Language Development Test
Beginning: Frequent Errors make communication difficult.  Memorized statements, questions, and disconnected words.  Beginning to understand some concrete details during instruction.  May demo little to no receptive or expressive skills.

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Early Intermediate: Frequent errors still exist and reduce communication. Understand more during instruction.  Respond with more ease in a variety of ways with less errors.Intermediate: Errors still complicate communication but demonstrate greater ease and reduced errors.  Morph their EL skills to meet communication and learning demands.Early Adcanced:  Advanced vocabulary, Less frequent errors and they don’t effect communication as much.  Combining the elements of EL in more complex and cognitively demanding areas.  Use English to learn content.

Advanced: Errors are infrequent still need refinement to match their native speaking peers.  Can communicate with a wide range of people in social and learning demainds.  Can ID and summerize concrete and abstract details. 

Classroom assessments
Textbook assessmentsPerformance Based assessmentscurriculum-based assessmentsauthentic assessmentsTeacher-made assessments
Legal History of ELL
No Child Left Behind: 2001Title IIIIDEA:2004Proposition 227williams vs State of CaliforniaLau vs NicholsEC 311CCR, title 5, section 11309 (b) (4)FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act) Senate Bill 2987
EL Groupings
Benchmark Group Students:progressing towards standards achievement at a good pace but need support.Strategic Group Students:slightly below the mean on testing but participate in classroom with some modificantions and working with specialists.

Intensive Group Students:at risk! need intesive, on going support from specialists, instruction mods and other supports.

CALP: Cognative Academic Language ProfiecencyBICS: Basic Interpersonal Communicative SkillsCUP:SUP:
Acquisition-Learning hypothesis:There are two different and independent systems of second language performance: that which is aquired and that which is learned. Krashen believes that the learning is less important than acquisition. Monitor hypothesis:Explains how learning and aqusition are connected and how.  Acquisition is the utterance initiator and the learning is the editor or “monitor” after it’s aquired. Natural Order hypothesis:grammatical structures tend to be aquired in a natural order. Input hypothesis:only focused on acqusition not learning.

The learner will improve in their skills when they recieve language input that is one step past their current skills. Affective Filter hypothesis: 

Structured English Immersion: SEI

  • A methodology where ELLs learn English through structured and sequential lessons. The lessons are specially developed for ELLs and are based on the mainstream curricula.
  • Parts of the day are dedicated to the teaching of English and students are grouped by EL proficiency.
  • English is the primary focus and academic content is more of a support for learning English
  • English is treated like a foreign language.

Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE)
Students must have an intermediate fluency in English and mastery of their L-1.Instruction is carefully planned so that students can access English content because it is supported by material in their home language. The goal is that students will learn both English and the subject matter.

Special Features of SDAIE:Low affective filterModified SpeechContextual CluesMultisensory experiencesComprehesible inputFrequent Comprehension checksFormative assessmentSummative assessmentAppropriate lesson designContent driven

Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)
Comprehensible instruction for ELL that Integrates language development, content area instruction and expicit instruction in learning strategies. Lessons rely on scaffolding or instructional supports when concepts and skills are first introduced and gradual removal of supports as students develop greater proficiency, knowledge and skills. Three types of knowledge: declarative, procedural, metacognative. Learning is active and dynamic.

 For students who:

  • Have social communicative skills but don’t have academic language skills at their grade level.
  • Students who have academic skills in thier own language but need assistance in transferring conceptsfrom their language to English.
  • Bilinguagal students who have not yet developed academic language skills in either language.

Transitional/Developmental Bilingual Eduaction Programs
Children can easily acquire fluency in a second language by first acquiring fluency in their native language.The goal is to transiton students to English-only classes as quick as possible.A teacher instructs kids in math, science, and social studies in their native language so that the skills are transferable when they transition to English classrooms with native speaking peers.

 Typically they are in these for 3 years.

Dual Language Programs
Bilingual education where academic program is taught in two languages. Designed to develop English fluency, content knowledge and academic language simultaneously.
Heritatge-language Programs
Any language development program that is designed or tailored to address the needs of heritage language learners.

Heritage language learners is a person studying a language who has proficiency in or a cultural connection to that languages.

Approaches with ELL
Language Experience ApproachFrontloading Vocab and Language FunctionsInteractive JournalsShared Reading Learning LogsProcess WritingGraphic OrganizersPre-reading Activities
EL literacy pedagogical practices
Using prior knowledgecreate language rich environmentbalanced and comprehensive reading programStandards-based thematic unitsAppropraite reading materialsOrganize instruction in key skillsAdapt instructionScaffold activitiesIntegrate 4 language domainslink frames, forms, and functionslink language to content and cultureUse tiered vocabulary
Tiered Vocabulary
Tier One: Most basic words, Rarely require instruction in school, i.e. clock, baby, happy.

Tier Two: Words that are of high frequency for mature language users and are found across a variety of domains. Instruction adds productivity to an individual’s ability, i.e. coincidence, absurd, industrious.

Teach the roll they play in literacy, characterize written text, not so common in everyday language, come from interaction with text.Tier Three: Words whose frequency of use is quite low and is often limited to specific domains. Best learned when needed in a content area.

Learning Strategies
Metacognative: Thinking about thinkingPreparing and planning for learning, selecting learning strategies, monitorin strategy use, orchestrating various strategies, evaluating strategy use and learningMetalinguistic:Language used in talking about language. the ability to objectify language as a process as well as a thing. Helps with the transfer of linguistic knowledge across languages.

– awareness that language has potential great than simple symbols.- An awareness that words are separable from their referents.- An awareness that languae has a structure that can be manipulated.

English Learner Typologies
Long-term learnerA student who has been in American school for more than 6 years and is not progressing toward proficiency and struggles academically due to limited english skills.  May sound like Native speakers but have poor reading and writing skills.underschooled LearnerAny child that is learning English as a second language that is in upper grades but has not attended all of the previous grades or has had an interrupted education.Generation 1.5Immigrant students who move to the United States at the age of 12 or older and enroll in middle school or high school in this country.

 Well-Educated Newcomersrefers to English learners who have been in U.S. schools for four or fewer years and arrived with both limited English proficiency and a history of regular school attendance in the home country. These students typically have well-developed L1 literacy skills and may or may not have some level of English proficiency. They tend to acquire English language and academic skills more readily than do underschooled newcomers

No Child Left Behind: 2001
Raises expectations for states and school disticts: requires that all students meet or exceed state standards in reading/math and states must establish a testing system and academic standards according to federal guidelines.

  • Shools must show AYP of students (adequate yearly progress)
  • Parents can choose their child’s school if it isn’t making AYP
  • Requires LEP students become English profiecient and attain minimum or better reading/LA/math standards. 

Title III 
Purpose: English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement and Academic Achievement ActEnsures that limited LEP stuents including immigrants attain english proficiency and meet the same challenging academic content and achievement standards that other are expected to meet. 
Proposition 227 
Covers many aspects of edu in CA:

  • REquirement of instruction to be taught in English
  • Placement into one year’s worth of English immersion for students who are not fluent in English
  • funding for individuals who instruct studetns in English via private tutoring.

Williams vs State of California 
This suit claimed that the public schools in CA were not adequately providing for its students and that basic educational tools were lacking which caused students education to suffer. The result a new system was implemented to file complaints and looks at how districts were handleing unsafe conditions, teacher vacancies, poor materials or not enough materials. 
Lau vs Nichols 
Non-English speaking students who entered schools in CA were basically told to sink or swim and learn the language.

  This court case declared that this was a violation of the students rights. The Lau Remedies were the result of the suit and the court told the state that it must require the schools to teach English and to provide meaningful instruction to do so. Students were to be placed in a suitable environment to deal with the special need of EL.

EC 311 
Requires 30 days of placement in an english language classroom during the first year of school only. In following  years the 30 day attendence is not required; however in subsequent years waiver requests must be memorized.
CCR, title 5, section 11309 (b) (4) 
Districts are required to make core curriculum fully available to ELs within a reasonable time period.

  Students who lack sufficient English for understanding must be given a plan designed to regain academic insufficiencies before they are irreversible.

FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act) 
a federal law mandating that records be provided within 45 days of a students request. Students or their parents or guardians are permitted to review records and inform administration of any inaccuracies which must be corrected.
Senate Bill 2987
A California Bill that consolidated a multitude of bilingual and ESL certificates into only two types of certification. The 1991 billmerged a range of certificates that were issued by  CTC.
Westminster vs Mendez
Federal court case in 1946 challending racial segregation in OC schools. Ruled that the segregation of Mexican and mexican American students into seperate schools was unconstitutional. 
Castaneda vs Pickard
1978 in Texas filled against Raymondville Independt School District Claimed that the children were segregated and the criteria that was used was both ethnically and racially discriminating.

 Father claimed the school district failed to establish sufficient bilingual edu programs. In 1981 it was taken to the US appeals court and a court decision was established that a three-part assessment would be used to determine how bilingual edu programs would be held responsible for meeting the equal educational opportunities act.

  1. Programs must be based on sound educational theory
  2. Progam must be implemented effectively with resources for personnel, instructional materials, and space.
  3. After a trial period the program must be proven effective in overcoming language barriers/handicaps.

Front Loading and Prior Knowledge
To help ensure that the text is comprehensible, it is important learners are given scaffolds before reading to help them set a purpose for reading, to spend time accessing and building background knowledge, to make connections from the known to the new and to emphasize key vocabulary. This process naturally brings prior knowledge to a level where it is ready to apply, stimulates questions on the topic, builds interest, and most of all builds the content language that will support the reading (Hoyt, 2003) There are a variety of ways to frontload information to maximize success for English language learners. Prior Knowledge We can build on each student’s prior knowledge.

We can use the prior concepts, using the crossovers between languages such as cognates, words with shared roots. Then students can use and value what they already know in their new language.

It is important to set Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives for EL in English Language proficiency and performance on academic content. These objectives should include: Annual increases in progress in learning English and in how they are acquiring English language proficiency.

They should be used for making annual yearly progress in the academic content areas.