Transformative Approach
a theory that in order to learn one must be aware of his or her thoughts or feelings regarding the world around us. Lessons are designed to allow students to see things from others’ perspectives. This enhances multicultural learning environment.
Ethnocentrism
This is the belief that your culture/ideas/life/etc are better than any other. judge yourself to be superior
Cultural Relativism
When someone judges a current culture by the standards of his/her original culture. seeing the home of another culture and judging them as poor or dirty or cluttered esp if that home is one in which relatives live and share with each other/family time is judged more important than an immaculate house
SDAIE
Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English
CALP
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
(academic language)
BICS
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (social language)SDAIE
ELAC
English Learner Advisory Committee
phases of acculturation
honeymoon, culture shock, adaptation, acceptance
sterotype
preconceived, oversimplified generalization abt thnic religious group, race, gender
prejudice
excessive pride in my own heritage/culture
discrimination
actions that limit opportunities/social class/gender/language
economic challenges
people who are poorer viewed negatively (trailer trash)
intragroup discrim
first generation vs 2nd or later
legal status
refugee/immigrant/undocumented
Long-term EL issues
Don’t feel like they fit into mainstream culture and don’t identify with home country 50% graduate from HS; low pay jobs; public assistance; gangs
define acculturation
adapt to second culture without giving up first culture. this should be the primary goal of education.
assimilation
absorbed into dominant culture and lose their own culture in the process (melting pot)
accommodation
two-way process mainstream and minority culture both change and adapt
biculturalism
happens within ONE PERSON when they can manage equally well between both cultures. Switch back and forth easily.
cultural term for pragmatics
sociolinguistic factors = ____ in language ed terminology
social-interactionist theories
meaningful opportunitiesto negotiate meaning with others and to construct comprehensible output in the target language
pragmatics
audience, purpose
intermediate level learns communicative competence by
promoting develoment of social language learning strategies
quadrant B
meaningful but cognitively demanding
affective filter
raise the self-esteem of english learners and fcilitate their acquisition f English
opposite of incidental learning
explicitly taught
examples of contrasting cultural values
interdependent family/independent individual; cooperation vs competition; male dominant vs. female roles; formality vs informality; indirectness vs directness; fate vs mastery of own future
acculturation
process by which one cultural group takes on and incorporates one or more cultural patterns
avoiding relativism
No culture’s values, ethics, or morals as a whole may be judged as inherently superior or inferior to another’s
assimilation
A process in which an individual or group ompletely takes on the traits of another culture, leaving hehind the original cultural identity and being completely absorbed into the new cultural tradition
pluralism
members of such a society recognize the contributions of each group of the common civilization and encourage the maintenance and development of different life styles, languages and convictions.
multiculturism
a structural process designed to foster understanding, acceptance, and constructive relations among people of many different cultures
culture shock
the result of an impact, or encounter that an individual or a group may experience when confronted with the ideas of a totally different culture.
cultural universals
the notion that all cultures embrace the ideal of respect
congruence
the more similar one culture is to another, the easier it is to adapt to that second culture
ethnocentrism
belief in the inherent superiority of one’s own culture
Cummins Quadrant
cognitively demanding?
cognitively undemanding?
context embedded?
context reduced?
culture
the sum total of ways of living, including values, beliefs, esthetic standings, linguistic expressions, patterns of thinking, behavioral norms, and styles of communicaton, which a group of people has developed to assure its survival in a particular physical and human environment
intragroup
differences among individuals from the same general cultural background
ethnicity
refers to the origin, classification, characteristics of a people
intergroup
differences among individuals from different cultural backgrounds
Krashen
acquisition vs learning?
monitor – natural order
input = i+1
low affective filter reduces level of anxiety
Sociolinguistic Features
same as Pragmatics in cultural setting
discourse
oral turn-taking
timing of response
volume of voice
comfort with silence
Language Variation
Dialect
Historical Variation
Social Language
Academic Language
Evolves over time
CUP
common underlying proficiency
L2 & L1 shared foundation
Push-Pull
factors which contribute to immigration. Leaving harsh environment? Seeking better educational options?
cognates
Abril=April
Febrero=February
Function
the cognitive tasks that drive us to connect thought and language. From simple to complex, orally and in writing. Used to inform text structure and engage in social and academic conversation.
DLAC
develops a district master plan for educational programs/services for ELs
DLAC
An LEA with 51 or more ELS must have one of these
ELAC
advises the school site council on the development of the Single School Plan for Student Achievement
LEA
sends notice of and holds regular meetings to formulate and respond to parents’ recommendations
LEA
informs parents jow they can be involved in the education of their children
ELAC
a school site with 21 or more ELs must have this
Language
Socio-economic status
Culture
Experience
Education
Background factors which affect academic performance, Language Acquisition, and School Adjustment
key terms for CTEL 1
“meaningful”
“audience and purpose”
“promote development”
“scaffolding”
key terms for CTEL 3
“affective filter”
“adapt”
“heterogenerous group”
“views”
“approaches to learning”
“culturally inclusive”
“comfortable”
transformative approach
an approach which goes very deep…makes sure the students really get it.
scaffolding
modifying instruction using graphic organizers, templates or anything that makes it easier for students to absorb language
scaffolding
dividing the task into smaller, manageable subcomponents and sensitively withdrawing assistance when it is no longer required
comprehensible input
when a student is able to totally understand the material in a meaningful and emotional way and is able to relay that knowledge in a meaningful way
comprehensible input
the student’s “i”
their “zone”
where they are linguistically