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By first activating this knowledge, new learning can be better connected to old lrng, improving comprehension.Tchr may need to “fill the gaps” once the extent of the old knowledge is assessed.
ability to understand that which is heard
combination of two letters to form one sound. Examples: th, ph, ch, qu, sh.
combination of two vowels to form one sound. Requires movement of the tongue. Examples: ay, oi, i-silent e.
vowel sound in an unaccented or unstressed part of a word.Examples: “uh” sound in alone or Dinah.
consonants that are not separated by vowels and are pronounced together. They can be initial (beginning of a word), medial (middle) or final (end).
Examples: lamp, ring. Part of a language learning progression, preceded by CVC, and followed by CCVCC, etc.
word made up of two or more morphemes
changes in pitch or stress that help make meaning, such as raising pitch at the end of a question.
speaker’s high or low tone of voice
changing or control of one’s frequency during speech: quiet to loud, low- to high-pitched, etc.
include the parts of speech as well as phrase categories like verb or noun phrases
Linguistic study of similarities and differences between 2 languages. Used to predict why some language elements are harder to learn than others. Can difficulties w/lrng L1 predict difficulties w/lrng L2?
ability to analyze and make sense of symbols that make up a language, both written and verbal.
Includes the ability to recognize letters, sounds, patterns, syllables, etc.
Common combinations of letters. Knowing “ea” sound helps with “head” and “bread.” Patterns aid comprehension.
Smallest part of a word that has meaning and cannot be further subdivided.
“Happy” has one; “unhappy” has two.
a base word, a prefix, and infix, or a suffix.
morpheme that performs a function such as a preposition, or that gives inflection, such as -ed or -est.
the study of the sounds in languages, particularly the sounds that are distinct in each lang. and the systems of sounds
smallest possible unit of sound in a language. Example: /b/, /oo/, /th/ in “booth.” 41 in English
teaching of individual letter sounds and their relationship in combined letter sounds.
An organized order to the teaching of letters and sounds.
Debate: is organized better than non-systematic or none at all?
conscious mental activities such as solving problems, making decisions, being creative, using imagination
study of how context clues give meaning to language; examination of rules of social interaction and speech in different contexts.
The sound-symbol code, a set of rules for writing a language, including spelling and punctuation
breaking down a word into parts, such as base/root, prefix, suffix, and syllable.
grammatical function of placing words or phrases side by side to further describe them.
Example: The man, my boss, is nice.
Cognitive process of placing items in groups that share characteristics, such as “animals” or “colors”
the ability to know how one is learning, including making predictions on how well one might do at a task
using context clues
using surrounding pictures, words, etc. as an aid to understanding text
the way morphemes are placed together and ordered. For example in English, prefixes come at the beginning; we say unhappy, not happyun.