Wang., et al, developed the porous
tungsten oxide/copper tungstate (WO3/CuWO4) composite thin films via facile in situ conversion
method, with a polymer templating strategy. Copper nitrate
solution with the copolymer surfactant was added on to WO3 substrates
by planned dip coating and
followed by heat treatment in air at 5000C. The Cu2+ reacted with the WO3 substrate to
produce the CuWO4
compound. The composite WO3/CuWO4 thin films represented well
improved photoelectrochemical
results over CuWO4 and WO3 single phase photoanodes. The
factors of charge separation and
light absorption performance of the composite and 2 single phase films were checked to understand
the reasons for the Photoelectrochemical enhancement of WO3/CuWO4
composite thin films. The
photocurrent was generated from water splitting as proved by hydrogen and oxygen gas
evolution, and Faradic efficiency was determined based on the amount
of Hydrogen gas produced. This
work provided a low-cost and controllable way to prepare WO3-metal
tungstate composite thin films,
and also made easy to deepen the know about the charge transfer in
heterojunction. (1)

S. G. Krishnan and C. Rejitha prepared Pure and
cadmium-doped copper oxide NPs by a microwave assisted solvothermal way using
copper acetate as the starting material. The particle sizes of these NPs
produced were 10-15nm for pure CuO and 43-90 nm for cadmium-doped CuO NPs. The
prepared both pure and cadmium doped copper oxide NPs have been evaluated by
using Scanning Electron Microscope, X-Ray Diffraction and UV–Visible analysis techniques.
From the XRD study, it was clear that the synthesized samples are in the
monoclinic system. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) pattern shows the round
shaped morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles. The presence of dopant in
the doped sample is known by using EDAX calculations. The optical property of
cadmium-doped copper oxide NPs are determined by UV-Visible spectroscopy. (2)

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Liu., et al, electrodeposited the nanostructured copper
oxide thin coatings from copper (II) complexes which can catalyze the oxygen
evolution reactions. Cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis using copper
oxide thin film electrode in basic aqueous solutions represented the
significant catalytic currents. The catalyst film was analyzed by X-ray
diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that nanostructured copper
oxide is very active electrocatalyst for water oxidation. (3)

Chandra., et al, prepared Cu NPs by solution reduction process successfully.
The effect of parameters on the size of Cu NPs was investigated and the referential
process factors were gathered. The morphology and structure of the prepared Cu
nanoparticles were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission
electron microscopy (TEM), QELS data, solid state UV and infrared spectroscopy
(IR). The mean size of nanoparticles was obtained between 14 ± 2 nm. (4)

E., et al, deposited Silver nanoparticles on titanium oxide thin films
fabricated on FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) glass with the help of a double
pulse electrochemical deposition procedure. A systematic study of growth and
particle nucleation was shown as a function of time and applied potential.
Samples were characterized by grazing-angle X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) technique
and morphology was observed using SEM and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy device
(EDS).  Results proved the possibility of
controlled electrochemical homogeneous fabrication of metallic silver particles
over TiO2 surface, which show a potential application in catalytic
process. (5)

Choi and Tzy-Jiun M. Luo synthesized the silver nanoparticles within
aminosilica film from spontaneous reduction reaction and investigated the electrochemical
properties of silver nanoparticle (d ? 5 nm) using cyclic voltammetry.
Results depicted that the nanocomposite film shows similar redox property as
solution-synthesized silver NPs when calculating in phosphate buffer solution
and its redox potentials were obtained to be sensitive to the presence of
chloride ion. It also depicted that hydrolyzed aminosilica and silver
nanoparticles increase the electron diffusivity of the aminosilica film. Both
results prove that an accurate reference electrode suitable for microfluidic
devices can be prepared simply by treating an aminosilica-coated electrode with
a silver nitrate solution. And also, a humidity sensor consisted on silver-silica
nanocomposite film has been demonstrated. (6)

L., et al, revised some of the most relevant and mostly used synthetic methods
present for the synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles. Special emphasis
has been focused in the rationale included in the formation of the
nanostructures, from the early metallic silver atoms preparation, passing by
atoms nucleation and ultimately ends in the growth of silver nanostructures. (7)

Ijaz Hussain., et al, reported the effect of aniline amount on the growth and
size of silver nanocrystal using aniline and silver nitrate used as a reductant
and oxidant. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy, and
selected areas electron diffraction (SAED) have been used to analyze silver
nanoparticles. The TEM depicts that silver nanocrystals are roughly round and
of evenly distributed particle size, and the average particle size is ca. 26 nm. A broad surface plasmon
resonance band was shown at 400 nm. The rings patterns are in fine agreement
with the standard values of the facecentered-cubic shape of silver nanocrystals.
This is connected to the adsorption of aniline and interparticle interaction
onto the surface of Ag-nanocrystals through electrostatic interactions between
the lone-pairs electrons of –NH2 and positive surface of Ag-
nanoparticles. (8)

Solarskaa., et al, deposited Silver NPs on FTO conductive glass substrate and
within n-type WO3 films synthesized by a sol-gel method. A large
improvement in water splitting photocurrents under AM1.5 visible light
irradiation for the WO3 photoanode with Ag nanoparticles was
demonstrated. Ag NPs arrangement on FTO to generated                                                                                                                                                                    
surface plasmon under the visible wavelengths with the WO3 over-layer was
confirmed by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) investigations. (9)

Ahmadi, Reza Younesi and Maxime J-F Guinel synthesized tungstite (WO3.H2O)
NPs by using a simple and cheap low temperature and low pressure hydrothermal
procedure in addition of HCl to diluted sodium tungstate solutions (Na2WO4.2H2O)
at temperatures below 4oC. A heat treatment at temperatures at or
above 300oC resulted in a phase transformation to monoclinic WO3,
while preserving the NPs morphology. The products were investigated by using
powder x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray
photoelectron spectroscopy. (10)