What is a teaching lecture?
A formal or informal presentation of information, concepts or principles given by a single individual
What are the two types of teaching lectures?
Formal and Informal
What are some advantages of a teaching lecture?

1. IDEAL for introducing a Subject & Teaching facts 

2. PRESENTS information to a large group @one time

3. ALLOWS for note taking & reference to other material 

4. EFFECTIVE way of motivating students

5. Supplement to other methods 

6. Prepares students for discussion

What are some disadvantages of a teaching lecture?

1. LIMITS student participation 

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2. CAN’T USE lecture to teach skills

3. DIFFICULT to evaluate learning

4. DIFFICULT to maintain students’ attention

What is usually conducted from behind a lectern and no verbal interaction between the instructor and students? 50 or more? Communication is one way?

Formal lectures
What is conducted with verbal interaction between the instructor and students? both student and instructor ask questions and provides comments to enhance lesson.
Informal lecture
What is a guided discussion?

Instructor controlled group process in which students share information and experiences to achieve a learning objective.

Guided discussions is a learning situation involving what?
1. Exchanging ideas, opinion, experiences 
2. method of teaching using questions to encourage participation 
3. instructor’s job is to ask questions, pose problems, and direct student participation
What are the BASIC characteristics of a Guided Discussion?

BE tied to a standard of performance 
BE a self-contained unit of work 
BE adapted to the needs of the learner 
HAVE a definite structure


What are the advantages of Guided Discussion?

1. ALLOWS everyone to participate 
2. POOLS knowledge/experience 
4. SIMULATES real world situations through discussions


What are the disadvantages of Guided Discussion?

1. TIME consuming 
2. LIMITS number of participants 
3. can DEGENERATE quickly if not controlled 
4. members may feel INTIMIDATED or reluctant to participate

How do you prepare the training session?

2. Conduct RESEARCH 
3. ORGANIZE your lesson (Develop teaching plan)


What is a training objective?

A concise statement describes what the trainees should be able to do when they complete the training.

When doing research what sources are available?


What is included in INTERNAL Resources?

Personal experience and knowledge you already possess
3 Steps to Prepare a Trng Session

1. Develop Trng Objective

2. Conduct your research

3. Organize your lesson

Trng Objective
A concise statement that describes what one should be able to do upon completion of the trng
the ability or official capacity to exercise control over others
Informal Power
Comes from forms of leverage, must be earned and maintained
Formal Power
Ability to reward and punish
Abuse of Power
Using one’s position to gain access o information that shouldn’t be accessible to the public
A specia advantage, immunity, permission, right, or benefit granted to or enjoyed by an individual, class, or caste
Social Dominance Theory
Proposes that societies contain ideologies that eithr promote or attenuate intergroup hierarchies
As an EOA, be aware of your surroundings

Identify inequality, based on power and priviledge:while at work, watching TV, listening to the news, etc.


Understand the social dynamic of an organization, note discriminatory behaviors associated with priviledge

Unreasonable negative attitude toward others because of their membership in a particular group
3 Levels of Prejudice

1. Cognitive Prejudice

2. Emotional Prejudice

3. Action-Oriented Level of Prejudice

Unfairly treating a person or group of people differently from other people or groups of people
Catgories protected from discrimination





National Origin



Indirect Institutionalized Discrimination
Dominant group practices having a harmful impact o members of another group even though the organizationally or community -prescribed norms or regulations guiding those actions have been established with no intent to harm
Institutional Discrimination: Military

Individual recruitment


Unit Readiness

Mission Effectiveness

True or False



Discrimination based on race/color can ONLY occur wht the victim and the person who inflicted the discrimination are of a different race/color


Prejudice and Discrmination

manifested through social learning and conformity

Includes the laws, regulations, and norms of segregation or unequal access to resources
A division of human beings indentified by the possession of traits that e transmissible by descent and that are sufficient to characterize persons possessing these traits as a distinctive genotype
Any attitude, belief, behavior, or institutional arrangement that favors one race or ethnic group over another

2 Types of Racism


1. Individual

2. Institutional

Institutional Racism
Takes the form of the practices, customs,rules, and standards of organizations, including governments that unnecessarily disadvantage people because of their race color, or ethnicity
Intentional Racism
Conscious act, sually motivate by prejudice or intent to harm
Unintentional Racism
An unconscious act, not usually motivated by prejudice or intent to harm
Which TYPE and FORM of racism occurs when organizational policies knowingly cause unfair treatment to a particular race or ethnic group?

TYPE: Institutional

FORM: Intentional

Covert Racism
Originates within established and respected forces in society and recieves far less public condemnation than other forms of racism
Subtle Racism

1. Appears nonracial on the surface

2. Beneath the surface are negative attitudes and stereotyped beliefs that affect personal interactions


Internal factor of racism


Judging other ethnic groups according tothe standardand values of one’s own group


External Factors of Racism


Social Visibility


Mass Media

Unequal Power







Not allowed to enlist at onset



Manpower demands increased, minorities recruited: poorly trained, segregated, low-level/hazardous jobs



War over: units disbanded, minorities released from duty

Historical practice of placing men into units based upon the color of their skin

Combating Racism in the Military



Making others aware the existence of individual/instititutional racism in contemporary/subtle forms


Promotion of cultural awareness and the knowledege of minority contributions to the military

Combating Racism in the Military




Facilitated through education


Small group discussions, workshops, guest speakers, movies


Topics related to racism  are addressed


Include: how racism dehumanizes people, the financial cost of racism, contemporary racism