Diet
is one of the major factor for chronic diseases, which is lifestyle related. Subjective reports and objective observations can be used to
for the assessment of dietary intake. Misreporting, overestimation and
recalling are common problems with dietary estimation methods which are currently
available. This study accentuate on the various methods used for the assessment
of dietary intake methods and its significance in day to day life. The 7-day
weighed record(7DWR) method is often considered as gold  standard and often used as a reference method
in many situations and it involves a particular weighing of each and every food
item prior to consumption.  This study
aims to compare the energy an macronutrient (Carbohydrates, fats, proteins,
Vitamins, etc.), intakes estimated from 24HDR and 7DWR for a particular
individual.

 

Introduction

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Studies
showing the relationship between health and diet greatly rely on accurate
measurement of food intake. Another important factor for overseeing the ongoing
nutritional transition is assessment of various dietary intake methods among
different populations.

 

Dietary
intake of a population has been measured by various methods in the past. One of
the hugely popular method has been the 24 hour dietary recall (24HDR) due to
its short administration time which is 24 hours. In this method, the
participant tells the interviewer the quantity of foods and beverages taken in
the previous day. The 24 HDR method was formulated for the quantitative
assessment of current nutrient intake. The advantages of this method are that,
it has low participant burden and it provides dependable intake data with
minimum bias. But this method also have some limitations such as: recalls can
be expensive , and it also require skilled nutritionists.

 

To
overcome the limitations of the dietary recalls, the 7DWR method has been used
as a reference method by some of the developed countries. The 7DWR method is
usually considered as the global standard but it also has some limitations such
as huge subject burden(subject has to maintain a record of the food items
consumed), high cost and time consuming, and inapplicability among large sample
group.

 

The
aim of this study is to compare these two methods. In addition, the
practicality of the weighed record method as a reliable tool to evaluate the
perpetual intake pattern will be decided. However, assessment of dietary intake
using less data is a very challenging task for the researchers so more common
methods are used for the same.

 

 

Methods
used for Dietary Assesement

 

The
two broad categories grouping the methods of dietary intake are:

·       
Real time recording

·       
Methods of recall

 

24 Hour dietary recall method(24 HDR)

 

The recalled food intake was
compared with recorded food intake using a cross sectional design. A 24 hour
computer assisted interview was performed at the participant’s home. The
24hDR was performed by the trained dietitian. The interview was performed by
dietitians trained to use NUTRITICS-SOFT.

This
method had mainly four steps:

1.     The
participant had to recall the foods consumed in the preceeding day.

2.     The
interviewer inquired for estimations with household measures and details of all
the foods and liquids listed.

3.     48
food items slides each with 3 food sizes expressed on household measures were
individually shown to the participant on a computer screen.

4.     The
participant is given a chance to correct or complete any mistake/forgotten data
in his/her previous recall.

 

7 day weighed record method(7 DWR)

 

Following
the 24-hour Dietary Record(24 HDR) method, data on the usual nutrient intake
pattern was achieved using the 7-day weighed intake method(7 DWR), by using
kitchen scales.

 

The
participant was shown how to use the kitchen scales and was asked to operate
them before the actual data collection was commenced. Instructions given to the
participant were:

1.     To
wait for zero after switching on the scale.

2.     To
record the weight of the empty container before adding the food.

3.    
Add the food items and
record the weight and details of the food and repeat the same procedure for all
the food items.

4.    
Weigh the leftovers and
record it. The participant was also provided with an instruction manual.

 

The assessment of energy and
major nutrients for both the dietary intake methods was carried out using
nutrient analysis software.

 

Results

 

The
Mean energy intake from 24 hour dietary intake ( 24 HDR) was 1250 kcal/d and
mean energy intake from 7day weighed record (7DWR) were 1888 kcal/d .Nutrient analysis were carried out using Nutritics software for dietary
data. The database of the software contains nutritional information for various
food items. The energy intakes from 24-Hour Dietary Recall were carbohydrates
(38.3%), protein(23.5%), fat(38.2%) and alcohol(0%). Intake of Minerals and
other trace elements were sodium(745mg) potassium(2181mg) chloride(984mg)
calcium(385mg) Phosphorus (918mg) magnesium(238mg) Iron(5.8mg) zinc(5.7mg)
copper(0.61mg) manganese(2.2mg) selenium(35µg) Iodine (82µg).Intakes of
vitamins were Vitamin A(500µg),Vitamin D(0.53µg),Vitamin E(6.9mg), Vitamin k1(93µg),
Vitamin B complex(49.57mg), Vitamin C(70mg).

 

Whereas the energy intakes
from 7 Day weighed record were carbohydrates (44.1%), protein(23.2%), fat(32.7%),alcohol(0%),
sodium(2118mg) potassium(2853mg) chloride(2178mg) calcium(659mg) Phosphorus
(1547mg) magnesium(271mg) Iron(11.1mg) zinc(14.4mg) copper(6.4mg) manganese(3.4mg)
selenium(157µg) Iodine (334µg). Intakes of vitamins were Vitamin A(1586µg),Vitamin
D(2.8µg),Vitamin E(14.5mg), Vitamin k1(39.4µg), Vitamin B complex(59.26mg),
Vitamin C(103mg).