what are the provisions of no child left behind based on?
Accountability for student learning and the use of scientifically based programs of instruction
Requiring that all students with disabilities participate in state-wide assessments and that all students make adequate progress are components of
no child left behind
No Child Left Behind allows students with what to participate in alternative assessments.
severe disabilities
The principle of IDEA that states that all children with disabilities, regardless of the nature or severity of the disability shall receive a free public education is
free appropriate public education
The federal law that extends civil rights to people with disabilities is
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
what extends civil rights protection of persons with disabilities to private-sector employment, all public services, public accommodation, transportation, and telecommunications.
americans with disabilities act
what is required for students to be eligible for special education services.
classification in a disability category
what is a complex issue involving emotional, political, and ethical considerations in addition to scientific, fiscal, and educational interests.
what is more restrictive than exceptional children because it does not include children who are intellectually gifted.
students with disabilities
the term handicap refers to
a disability that leads to educational, personal, social, vocational, or other problems.
the term at risk refers to children who
although not currently identified as having a disability, are considered to have a greater-than-usual chance of developing one.
Preventive intervention is designed to
prevent, eliminate, and/or overcome the obstacles that might keep a child with disabilities from learning.
what intervention involves teaching a substitute skill that enables a person to perform a task in spite of a disability.
what intervention is designed to eliminate specific effects of a disability.
The belief that the general education classroom does not offer the intense, individualized education for a child with disabilities is the reason why inclusion is rejected by who
some parents of students with disabilities
who contested the educational placement of the child in favor of a more restrictive environment.
parents of a child with disabilities
The presence of students with disabilities impairing the academic skills of students without disabilities in an inclusive classroom is a concern of
some educators.
which part of an IEP should include how the child’s disability affects the child’s involvement and progress in the general curriculum.
a statement of the child’s present levels of academic achievement and functional performance
what should also include a statement of program modifications or supports for school personnel that will be provided for the child.
A statement of the special education and related services
Educating students with disabilities with children who are not disabled to the maximum extent possible is called
the least restrictive environment
Collaboration, consultation, and teaming are three ways for team members to
work together
Coordination is the simplest form of collaboration and requires
ongoing communication and cooperation.
Consultation involves
team members providing information and expertise to one another.
who is the most likely person to raise concerns about a child’s learning, behavior, or developmental differences.
a teacher or parent
what is most often conducted by a building-based early intervening team.
pereferal intervention
Responsiveness to intervention provides
early intervention in the form of scientifically validated instruction to all children in the school who are at risk for failure.
Written communication involves
happy grams, parent appreciation letters, and special accomplishment charts.
one-time information sessions, make-it-and-take-it workshops, and multiple-session programs on IEP/IFSP planning or behavior support strategies.
parent education and support groups
Accepting parents’ statements means
conveying through verbal and nonverbal means that parent input is valued.
Deficits in self-care skills and social relationships are two areas of
adaptive behavior skills.
Children with mild intellectual disabilities were traditionally educated in
self-contained classrooms in the public schools.
According to today’s special education teachers, what prohibit students from obtaining an education in the least restrictive environment.
separate schools
what will provide meaningful access to academic and social life of the classroom.
Adapting instruction so that every student can participate frequently and successfully in the curriculum
uided notes, graphic organizers, and mnemonic strategies are what
types of content enhancements.
Brain damage, heredity, biochemical imbalance, and environmental factors are all possible causes of
learning disabilities
There is growing evidence that genetics may account for at least some family links with what
Reports show a what degree of comorbidity between learning disabilities and ADHD.
a high rate
The federal definition of learning disabilities includes the what that states that learning disabilities cannot occur along with other disabilities.
exclusion clause
Functional analysis involves
the experimental manipulation of several antecedent or consequential events surrounding a target behavior in an attempt to hypothesize functions of the behavior.
Most students with emotional and behavioral disorders make excellent progress when provided with
explicit, systematic instruction.
A functional behavioral assessment is
a systematic process for gathering information to understand why a student may be engaging in challenging behavior.
Asking teachers, parents, and others who know the child well about the circumstances that typically surround the occurrence and nonoccurrence of a problem behavior is called
indirect functional behavior assessment.
Two traits that help to foster strong teacher–student relationships are differential acceptance and
having empathetic relationships.
A teacher of students with emotional or behavioral disorders must exhibit
mature actions, attitudes, and self-control.
Using naturalistic teaching procedures and different cues and prompts to ensure that each child receives adequate support are two ways of
using instructional strategies that maintain the child’s natural flow.
Using activities that will engage children with a large range of abilities and allowing every child to have a turn to play a role are ways to promote
generalization and maintenance of skills.
Applied behavior analysis is
a scientific approach to designing, conducting, and evaluating instruction based on empirically verified principles describing functional relationships between events in the environment and learning.
Discrete trial training is
one-on-one sessions during which a routinized sequence of contrived learning trials is presented as the teacher and child sit at a table.
Characteristics of autism spectrum disorders may include impaired social relationships, communication and language deficits, intellectual functioning, and
unusual responsiveness to sensory stimuli.
Autistic disorder is marked by three defining features with onset before age three: a qualitative impairment of social interaction, a qualitative impairment of communication, and
restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior.
what has strongly influenced the treatment of fluency disorders.
The application of behavioral principles
Distortions, substitutions, omissions, and additions are types of
speech-sound errors.
Articulation disorders are exhibited by a child who
is not able to produce a given sound (i.e., who does not have the sound in his or her repertoire of sounds).
When a child produces a given sound correctly in one situation but not in others, he or she is exhibiting a
phonological disorder.
Paralinguistic and nonlinguistic behaviors are
cues that play major roles in human communication.
The skill level of the who plays a critical role in the success and appropriateness of a general education classroom placement for students who are deaf.
educational interpreter
Speech-to-text translation does what
increases access by deaf students to live presentations, such as public or classroom lectures.
what is a hearing impairment so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, and adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
An impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of deafness is a
hearing impairment.
Residual hearing means that
a deaf person may perceive some sounds.
Vision specialists provide supports to
students with visual impairments in the regular classroom.
Orientation and mobility, listening skills, and functional life skills are
expanded curriculum priorities for students with visual impairments.
Cane skills, guide dogs, and sighted guides are types of
orientation and mobility aids.
Interacting less during free time and often having delays in the development of social skills are characteristics of
students with visual impairments.
Visual acuity and field of vision are the basis of
the legal definition of blindness
The ability to clearly distinguish forms and discriminate among details is
visual acuity.
what is a disorder of voluntary movement and posture, and it is the most prevalent physical disability in school-age children.
Cerebral palsy
what involves the skeletal system—bones, joints, limbs, and associated muscles.
An orthopedic impairment
A neuromotor impairment involves
the central nervous system affecting the ability to move, use, feel, or control certain parts of the body.
As a group, students with physical and health impairments achieve at what level
below grade level academically.
As a group, students with physical disabilities and health impairments perform at what level on measures of social-behavioral skills.
below average
Curriculum for students with severe disabilities should take into account
functionality, age-appropriateness, allowing them to make choices, and communication skills.
what is a brief or momentary loss of consciousness without any subsequent complications or damage.
A concussion
Significant and obvious defects in multiple life-skills or developmental areas are characteristics of
severe disabilities.
profound disabilities
Students who exhibit profound developmental disabilities in all five of the following behavioral-content areas of cognition, communication, social skills development, motor-mobility, and activities of daily living are considered to have profound disabilities.
The definition of deaf-blindness is
concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.
what provides different extensions of the same basic lesson for groups of students of differing abilities.
A tiered lesson
The two types of documented risks of infants and toddlers to be eligible for early intervention services are
biological and environmental.
An individualized family service plan includes
the family system, services for the family, focus on the natural environment, and intervention services provided by a variety of health and human service agencies.